Notes: While nine States have universal bans on hand-held devices and texting, many other States have partial bans on either or both that restrict use for novice drivers or bus drivers. In Iowa and Virginia, secondary enforcement is applied to texting while driving. In Maryland, secondary enforcement is applied to using hand-held devices while driving. The term "secondary enforcement" means that motorists must be stopped for another violation before they can be cited for texting or using a cell phone.
Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, State Laws on Distracted Driving, available at http://www.distraction.gov/state-laws/ as of September 5, 2011.