Table 2-4: Key Provisions of Safety Belt Use Laws: 2002

Table 2-4: Key Provisions of Safety Belt Use Laws: 2002

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State Effective1 Enforcement2 Fine Seats covered Vehicles exempted9
Alabama 7/18/1992 Primary $25 Front Designed for >10 passengers; model year <1965. Exemptions for medical reasons, rural mail carriers, and paper delivery.
Alaska 9/12/1990 Secondary $15 All School bus.
Arizona 1/1/1991 Secondary $10 All Designed for >10 passengers; model year < 1972.
Arkansas 7/15/1991 Secondary $25 Front School, church, or public bus; model year <1968.
California 1/1/1986 Primary $20 All None.
Colorado 7/1/1987 Secondary $17 Front Passenger bus, school bus, farm tractor, implements of husbandry.
Connecticut 1/1/1986 Primary $37 Front Truck or bus >15,000 lbs.
Delaware 1/1/1992 Secondary $20 Front Postal service vehicles.
District of Columbia 12/12/1985 Primary $505 All Seating >8 people.
Florida 7/1/1986 Secondary $30 Front School bus, public bus, truck >5,000 lbs.
Georgia 9/1/1988 Primary $15 Front Designed for >10 passengers; pickup truck.
Hawaii 2/16/1985 Primary $45 Front Bus or school bus >10,000 lbs.
Idaho 7/1/1986 Secondary $5 Front >8,000 lbs.
Illinois 7/1/1985 Secondary $25 Front None.
Indiana 7/1/1987 Primary $25 Front Truck, tractor, RV.
Iowa 7/1/1986 Primary $25 Front None.
Kansas 7/1/1986 Secondary $10 Front Designed for >10 people; truck >12,000 lbs.
Kentucky 7/13/1994 Secondary $25 All Designed for >10 people.
Louisiana 7/1/1986 Primary $25 Front Designed for >10 people; model year <1981.
Maine 12/27/1995 Secondary $25-$50 All seats  
Maryland 7/1/1986 Primary $25 Front Historic vehicle.
Massachusetts 2/1/1994 Secondary $25 All seats Truck >18,000 lbs; bus and taxi operators.
Michigan 7/1/1985 Primary $25 Front Taxi, bus, school bus.
Minnesota 8/1/1986 Secondary $25 Front Farm pickup truck.
Mississippi 3/20/1990 Secondary $25 Front Farm vehicle, bus; exemptions for medical reasons and letter carriers.
Missouri 9/28/1985 Secondary $10 Front Designed for >10 people; truck >12,000 lbs.
Montana 10/1/1987 Secondary $20 All Specially licensed motor vehicles and vehicles that make frequent stops.
Nebraska 1/1/1993 Secondary $25 Front Model year <1973.
Nevada 7/1/1987 Secondary $25 All Taxi, bus, school bus.
New Hampshire None No adult law NA NA School bus, vehicle for hire; model year <1968.
New Jersey 3/1/1985 Primary $206 Front None.
New Mexico 1/1/1986 Primary $255 All >10,000 lbs.
New York 12/1/1984 Primary $50-$1007 Front Bus, school bus, taxi, emergency vehicle.
North Carolina 10/1/1985 Primary $25 Front Designed for >10 people.
North Dakota 7/14/1994 Secondary $20 Front Designed for >10 people.
Ohio 5/6/1986 Secondary $25 Front None.
Oklahoma 2/1/1987 Primary $20 Front Farm vehicle, truck, truck tractor, RV.
Oregon 12/7/1990 Primary $75 All Newspaper, mail, meter, transit vehicle.10
Pennsylvania 11/23/1987 Secondary3 $10 Front Truck >7,000 lbs.
Rhode Island 6/18/1991 Secondary $50 All Manufactured before July 1, 1966; letter carriers; persons with physical/medical reasons, with a note from a licensed physician.
South Carolina 7/1/1989 Secondary $10 All School bus, public bus; vehicle with no belts in rear seating areas.
South Dakota 1/1/1995 Secondary $20 Front Passenger bus, school bus.
Tennessee 4/21/1986 Secondary $10 Front >8,500 lbs.
Texas 9/1/1985 Primary $25-$50 Front Designed for >10 people, truck over 15,000 lbs, farm vehicle.
Utah 4/28/1986 Secondary $45 All None.
Vermont 1/1/1994 Secondary $10 All Bus, taxi.
Virginia 1/1/1988 Secondary $25 Front Designed for >10 people, taxi.
Washington 6/11/1986 Primary4 $86 All Designed for >10 people.
West Virginia 9/1/1993 Secondary $25 Front Designed for >10 people.
Wisconsin 12/1/1987 Secondary $10 All Taxi, farm truck.
Wyoming 6/8/1989 Secondary $258 All Persons with physical/medical exemption documented by physician's signature; postal vehicles; children riding in child seats as required by law.

1 Effective date of first belt law in the state; 2 Primary enforcement enables police officers to stop vehicles and write citations whenever they observe a violation of the seat belt law. Secondary enforcement allows police officers to write a citation for seat belt infractions only after stopping a vehicle for some other traffic infraction; 3 Pennsylvania's fine is $10, but with court, EMS, judicial, and computer costs the ticket total is $51.50; 4 Effective June 2002; 5 Plus 2 points on license; 6$20 for seat belt violation, $10-$25 for child seat violation; 7 Plus 3 points on license. Front seat passengers 16 and older can be fined up to $50 and drivers can be fined up to $100 for each passenger under 16 not wearing a seat belt; 8 Fine for driver is $25, fine for passengers over 12 years is $10; 9 Most states exempt vehicles not manufactured with seatbelts; 10 Police/emergency vehicles exempted in some situations.

KEY: NA = not applicable; RV = recreational vehicle.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts 2003 Early Edition, Washington, DC: 2004, available at http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/TSFAnn/TSF2003EarlyEdition.pdf as of Oct. 27, 2004.