Glossary

Air taxi: For-hire passenger or cargo aircraft operations in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 135. An air taxi operates on an on-demand basis and does not meet the flight schedule qualifications of a commuter air carrier.

British thermal unit (Btu): The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (F) at or near 39.2 degrees F and 1 atmosphere of pressure.

Bus rapid transit: Fixed-route bus systems that either operate their routes predominantly on fixed-guideways (other than on highway high occupancy vehicle or shoulder lanes, such as for commuter bus service) or that operate routes of high-frequency service with the following elements: Substantial transit stations, traffic signal priority or pre-emption, low-floor vehicles or level-platform boarding, and separate branding of the service. High-frequency service is defined as 10-minute peak and 15-minute off-peak headways for at least 14 hours of service operations per day. This mode may include portions of service that are fixed-guideway and non-fixedguideway.

Certificated airport: An airport holding an operating certificate issued by the Federal Aviation Administration in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 14, Chapter 1, Part 139 allowing it to serve scheduled or nonscheduled air carrier aircraft designed for more than 30 passengers.

Class I (rail): As defined by the Surface Transportation Board in 2011, a Class I Railroad is a railroad with operating revenues of at least $433.2 million.

Commuter bus: Fixed-route bus systems that are primarily connecting outlying areas with a central city through bus service that operates with at least five miles of continuous closed-door service. This service typically operates using motorcoaches and usually features peak scheduling, multiple-trip tickets, and multiple stops in outlying areas with limited stops in the central city.

Commuter rail: A transit mode that is an electric or diesel propelled railway for urban passenger train service consisting of local short distance travel operating between a central city and adjacent suburbs. Service must be operated on a regular basis by or under contract with a transit operator for the purpose of transporting passengers within urbanized areas (UZAs), or between urbanized areas and outlying areas. Such rail service, using either locomotive hauled or self-propelled railroad passenger cars, is generally characterized by multi-trip tickets, specific station to station fares, railroad employment practices, and usually only one or two stations in the central business district. It does not include: heavy rail rapid transit or light rail / streetcar transit service. Intercity rail service is excluded, except for that portion of such service that is operated by or under contract with a public transit agency for predominantly commuter services.

Container: A box-like device used to store, protect, and handle a number of packages or items as a unit of transit that can be interchanged between trucks, trains, and ships without rehandling the contents. State Transportation

Controlled right-of-way: Lanes restricted for at least a portion of the day for use by transit vehicles and other high occupancy vehicles (HOVs).

Demand response: A transit mode comprised of passenger cars, vans or small buses operating in response to calls from passengers or their agents to the transit operator, who then dispatches a vehicle to pick up the passengers and transport them to their destinations. Service is usually provided using cars, vans, or buses with fewer than 25 seats.

Directional route-miles: The mileage in each direction over which public transportation vehicles travel while in revenue service. Directional route-miles are a measure of the facility or roadway, not the service carried on the facility such as the number of routes or vehicle-miles. Directional route-miles are computed with regard to direction of service, but without regard to the number of traffic lanes or rail tracks existing in the right-of-way.

Dry-bulk carrier (water): A ship with specialized holds for carrying dry cargo such as coal, grain, and iron ore in unpackaged bulk form.

Enplanements: The total number of revenue passengers boarding aircraft.

Exclusive right-of-way: Lanes reserved at all times for transit use and other high occupancy vehicles (HOVs).

Ferryboat (transit): Vessels for carrying passengers and / or vehicles over a body of water. The vessels are generally steam or diesel powered conventional ferry vessels. They may also be hovercraft, hydrofoil and other high-speed vessels. The vessel is limited in its use to the carriage of deck passengers or vehicles or both, operates on a short run on a frequent schedule between two points over the most direct water routes other than in ocean or coastwise service, and is offered as a public service of a type normally attributed to a bridge or tunnel.

Full containership: Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo.

General aviation: Civil aviation activity except that of air carriers operated in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 123, 127, and 135. The types of aircraft used in general aviation range from corporate multi-engine jet aircraft piloted by professional crews to amateur-built single engine piston acrobatic planes, balloons, and dirigibles.

Heavy rail: A transit mode that is an electric railway with the capacity for a heavy volume of traffic. It is characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration passenger rail cars operating singly or in multi-car trains on fixed rails, separate rights-of-way from which all other vehicular and foot traffic are excluded, sophisticated signaling, and high platform loading. Also known as "subway," "elevated (railway)," or metropolitan railway (metro)." State Transportation

Hybrid rail: Rail System Primarily operating routes on the National system of railroads, but not operating with the characteristics of commuter rail. This service typically operates light rail-type vehicles as diesel multiple-unit trains. These trains do not meet Federal Railroad Administration standards, and so must operate with temporal separation from freight rail traffic.

Light rail: A transit mode that typically is an electric railway with a light volume traffic capacity compared to heavy rail. It is characterized by passenger rail cars operating singly (or in short, usually two car, trains) on fixed rails in shared or exclusive right-of-way, low or high platform loading, and vehicle power drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.

Local railroad: A railroad which is neither a Class I nor a Regional Railroad, and is engaged primarily in line-haul services.

Major arterial highway: A major highway used primarily for through traffic.

Metric ton: 2,205 pounds (2,000 pounds divided by 0.907).

Minor arterial: In rural areas, roads linking cities and larger towns. In urban areas, roads distributing trips to small geographic areas but not penetrating identifiable neighborhoods.

Minor collector highway: In rural areas, routes that serve intracounty rather than statewide travel. In urban areas, streets that provide direct access to neighborhoods and arterials.

Mixed right-of-way: Lanes used for general automobile traffic.

Motorbus: A transit mode comprised of rubber-tired passenger vehicles operating on fixed routes and schedules over roadways. Vehicles are powered by diesel, gasoline, battery, or alternative fuel engines contained within the vehicle.

Natural gas distribution pipeline: Smaller than transmission pipelines and maintained by companies that distribute natural gas locally (intrastate). Distribution pipeline systems are analogous to networks of lesser roads and residential streets that people travel after getting off the freeway.

Natural gas transmission pipeline: Analogous to a major freeway, it is the main interstate transportation route for moving large amounts of natural gas from the source of production to points of distribution. Transmission pipelines are designed to move large amounts of natural gas from areas where the gas is extracted and stored to the local distribution companies that provide natural gas to homes and businesses.

Principal arterial highway: Major streets or highways, many of multilane or freeway design, serving high-volume traffic corridor movements that connect major generators of travel.

Regional railroad: A non-Class I, line-haul railroad operating 350 or more miles of road or with revenues of at least $40 million or both.

Short ton: 2,000 pounds.

Streetcar rail: This mode is for rail transit systems operating entire routes predominantly on streets in mixed-traffic. This service typically operates with single-car trains powered by overhead catenaries and with frequent stops.

Switching and terminal railroad: A non-Class I Railroad engaged primarily in switching and/or terminal services for other railroads

Tanker: An oceangoing ship designed to haul liquid bulk cargo in world trade.

Ton-mile: The movement of one ton of cargo the distance of one statute mile.

Trackage rights: The authority of one railroad to use the tracks of another railroad for a fee.

Trolley bus: A transit mode comprised of electric rubber-tired passenger vehicles, manually steered and operating singly on city streets. Vehicles are propelled by a motor drawing current through overhead wires via trolleys, from a central power source not onboard the vehicle.

Unlinked passenger trips: The number of passengers boarding public transportation vehicles. A passenger is counted each time he or she boards a vehicle even if the boarding is part of the same journey from origin to destination.

Vanpool: A transit mode comprised of vans, small buses and other vehicles operating as a ride sharing arrangement, providing transportation to a group of individuals traveling directly between their homes and a regular destination within the same geographical area. The vehicles shall have a minimum seating capacity of seven persons, including the driver.

Vehicle-miles traveled (highway): Miles of travel by all types of motor vehicles as determined by the states on the basis of actual traffic counts and established estimating procedures.

Wigwag (railroad): An early 20th century railroad grade crossing signal that uses a pendulumlike motion to signal the approach of a train.