Index

Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Accidents

aircraft, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89

bicycling, 4, 8, 37, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91, 93, 95–96

buses, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

causes,

alcohol/drug abuse, 8, 88, 94, 95

age factors, 7, 94, 95

bicycling, 95, 96

darkness, 94, 96

motor vehicle/pedestrian, 7, 94, 95

weather, 8

data needs, 10, 88, 100–101

developing countries, 98–99

elderly persons, 7, 94

gender factors, 98–99

injury/exposure, 100

light trucks/SUVs, 43, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

by mode of transportation, 83

motor vehicles, 7, 84

age factors, 7, 94, 95

buses, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

light trucks, 43, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

pedestrians, 7, 84, 86, 93, 94, 95, 96

personal-use, 7, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92

trucks, 88

pipelines, 85, 86

data needs, 8, 100

property damage, 124

spills, 124, 137

police reports, 96

protective devices,

air bags, 88, 90, 134

helmets, bicyclists, 96

safety belts, 88, 90, 92

rail transportation, 32, 85

recreational boating, 84, 85, 86

school bus safety, 83, 88, 91, 92–93

SUVs, see “light trucks” supra

transit, 84, 85; see “buses” supra

waterborne transportation, 84, 85, 86

see also Crashes; Fatalities; Injuries; Transportation safety

Africa, motor vehicle fatalities, 99

African-Americans

local travel, 39

long-distance travel, 40

Age factors

alcohol abuse, 94

children, 7, 39, 40, 41, 83–84, 90–93, 100

fatalities, 90, 91, 92, 94

consumer spending, 72–73

bicycle fatalities, 95

elderly persons, 7, 39, 41, 94, 100

fatalities, 7, 90, 91, 92, 94

local travel, 39, 41

long-distance travel, 40, 41

motor vehicle accidents, 7, 94, 95;

see “children” supra

motor vehicle age, 20, 31, 33

pedestrian fatalities, 7, 94

Agricultural products, 52

alcohol fuels, 113, 116, 136

food and kindred products, 5, 68, 71

Air bags, 88, 90, 134

Air conditioning, motor vehicles (CFCs), 9, 122, 138

Aircraft

accidents/fatalities, see “accidents/fatalities” under Air transportation

air pollution, 9, 117, 122, 126, 127, 129, 130–131

Global Positioning Systems, 3, 31–32, 98, 114

data needs, 33, 107

energy use, 107, 109

freight shipments of, 52

icing/deicing, 127

noise, 9, 123, 137

number of, 15, 25

pollutants,

airborne emissions, 9, 117, 122, 126

icing/deicing agents, 127

manufacturing releases, 129, 130–131

terrorism, 97, 98

see also Airports; Air transportation

Airport and Airway Trust Fund, 78

Air pollution, 9, 117

aircraft, 9, 117, 122, 126, 127, 129, 130–131

ammonia, 118, 119

carbon dioxide (CO2), 8, 104, 115–116, 116, 122

carbon monoxide (CO), 9, 104, 115–116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 128, 130

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 9, 117, 122, 133–134

criteria and related pollutants, 9, 116, 117, 119–120, 123, 126–127, 130, 138

diesel fuel, 117, 119, 120

emission controls, 9, 10, 104, 113–114, 115–116, 121, 132

gasoline, 9, 117, 119–120, 121

evaporative emissions, 9, 132

global climate change/greenhouse gases, 9, 104, 114–116

hazardous, 9, 104, 116, 121–122, 123, 130–131, 136–137

lead, 9, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 128

methane, 114

motor vehicles, 8, 9, 117, 129

air conditioning (CFCs), 9, 122, 138

emission controls, 9, 10, 104, 113–114, 115–116, 121, 132

pollutants released during manufacturing, 128, 129

standards, 113–114, 115–116, 121

nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 119, 130

nitrogen oxides(NOx), 104, 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 130

nitrous oxide(NO2), 114

ozone, ground-level, 120

ozone layer depletion, 9, 122, 138

chlorofluorocarbons, 9, 117, 122, 133–134

particulate matter, 117, 118, 119, 120, 125

pipelines, 9, 122–123

sulfur emissions, 117, 119, 123, 128

toxic pollutants, 9, 104, 116, 117, 120, 121–122, 123, 125, 126, 127–130, 133–138 (passim)

trends, 9, 118, 120

volatile organic compounds, 9, 104, 117, 118, 119, 123, 128, 130, 132

see also Air quality

Airports

Chicago, 51, 125–126

condition and performance, 2, 22, 25, 33, 58–59

data needs, 33, 126

deicing technology, 127

District of Columbia, 126–127

environmental impacts, general, 10, 127, 137

extent and use, 57–58

general aviation, 2, 15, 22

icing/deicing, 127

Los Angeles, 51

New York City, 51, 53

noise, 9, 123, 137

number and use, 2, 15, 22

passenger travel, 15

pollution, 125–127

runway conditions, 2, 22, 25, 33

San Francisco, 51, 127

terrorism, 97

urban areas, 113–114, 115–116, 121–122, 126

see also specific cities

Air quality, 9, 10, 113

Clean Air Act, 114, 116, 121, 136, 137

electric vehicles, 113

standards,

Clean Air Act, 114, 116, 121, 136, 137

criteria and related pollutants, 116, 117, 119–120, 123, 126–127, 130, 138

electric utilities, 61

greenhouse gases, 8, 9, 114

motor vehicle emissions, 113–114, 115–116, 121

urban, 115–116

trends, 118, 120

see also Air pollution

AIRS Facility Subsystem, 122, 137, 138

Air taxis, 2, 25, 85, 86, 100

Air transportation, 57–59

accidents/fatalities, 7–8, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89

air carriers, number of, 2, 15

air taxis, 2, 25, 85, 86, 100

baggage, lost, 5, 58–59, 145

commuter air carriers, 58, 85

costs, 37

data needs, 33, 107, 126

deicing/anti-icing , 127

economic indices, 37, 44

labor productivity, 6, 76, 77

employment, 6, 15, 73, 75, 76, 77

energy use, 105

extent and use, 2, 13, 22, 25, 57–58

freight, 2, 4, 6, 15, 22, 44, 50, 51, 53, 124, 127

ton-miles, 15, 44, 46

gender factors, 40

general aviation, 2, 15, 22, 25, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 100, 119

Global Positioning Systems, 31–32

government investment, 80

government revenues, 78, 79

hazardous materials, 124, 127

injuries, 85

international, 5, 42, 51

labor productivity, 6, 76, 77

long-distance travel, 2, 4–5, 6, 13, 15, 22, 25, 37, 40, 57–59, 125–127

passenger transportation, 2, 4–5, 6, 13, 15, 22, 25, 37, 40, 57–59, 125–127

baggage, lost, 5, 58–59, 145

commuter, 58, 85

passenger-miles, 15, 22, 57, 100

terrorism, 84, 97

trends, 2, 5, 85, 89

see also Aircraft; Airports; Federal Aviation Administration

Alabama, 60, 121

Alaska, 28, 60

Alcohol and drug abuse

accidents, cause of, 8, 88, 94, 95

bicycling accidents, 95

motor vehicle drivers, 94, 95

pedestrian fatalities, 7, 8, 94

Alcohol fuels, 103, 112–113, 136

Alternative and replacement fuels, 8, 111–114, 115–116, 117

alcohol fuels, 103, 112–113, 136

data needs, 135–136

natural gas, 112, 113, 116

reformulated gasoline, 112–113, 135–136

Alternative vehicles, 8, 112–113, 115–116, 117, 136

American Public Transit Association, 93

Americans with Disabilities Act, 59, 61, 63

American Travel Survey, 10, 26, 38, 42, 148

Ammonia, 118, 119

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109

Arizona, 5

Army Corps of Engineers, see U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Arterial roads, 14, 17, 18, 19, 54, 56

Asia

economic decline, 48–49, 110–111

motor vehicle fatalities, 99

passenger travel to, 42

trade with, 4, 48, 50–51

see also specific countries

Asians/Pacific Islanders, 41

ATS, see American Travel Survey

Aviation, see Air transportation

B

Baltimore, Maryland, 2, 26, 52, 60

Barges, 26, 27, 133

Batteries, 113, 131, 134, 138, 138

Bicycling, 4, 7, 37, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91, 93, 95–96

Biennial Reporting System on Hazardous Waste, 126

Black persons, see African-Americans

Boats, see Ferries; Recreational boating; Vessels

Bridges, 1, 17, 20, 33, 137

Buffalo-Niagara Falls, New York, 53, 126

Bureau of the Census

American Travel Survey, 10, 26, 38, 42, 148

Commodity Flow Survey, 3–4, 14, 42–49

government revenues, 78 (n. 2)

international trade, 147

National Travel Survey, 36

Motor Freight Transportation and Warehousing Survey, 68

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 68

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 75

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 143, 144

American Travel Survey, 10, 26, 38, 42, 148

capital stock assessments, 81

Commodity Flow Survey, 3–4, 14, 42–49

National Transportation Atlas Database, 10, 146–148

statistical practices, general, 11, 143

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, 10, 144, 146, 147, 148

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 6, 68

waterborne transportation, 27

Buses

accidents, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

bus lanes, 3, 29, 30

child safety, 84, 88, 92–93

costs to passengers, 37

disabled persons, 63

economic indices, 37, 59, 62

employment, 6, 75, 76, 77

energy use, 105, 136

fatalities, 86, 87, 91, 92

foreign countries, 84

injuries, 86, 87

labor productivity, 76, 77

long-distance travel, 5, 37, 38

number and use, 3, 5, 15, 16, 18, 21, 29, 37, 59

revenues, 59

route-miles, 29, 30

school bus safety, 83, 88, 91, 92–93

socioeconomic status of riders, 37

urban areas, 16, 29, 37

Business travel, 38, 40, 146

see also Commuter rail transportation; Commuter travel

C

California

freight, 52

high-speed rail transportation, 23

Los Angeles, 23, 50, 51, 52, 60

San Francisco, 23, 51, 60, 127

zero emission vehicles, 113

Canada, 4

freight, 49, 50, 51–52, 53, 147

high-speed rail, 23

North American Free Trade Agreement, 52

passenger travel, 23, 42

Capital investment, 7, 69, 80

GDP, 69

labor productivity, 76

national accounts, 81

see also Government investment

Capital stock, 80–81

Carbon dioxide, 9, 104, 115–116, 116, 122

Carbon monoxide, 9, 104, 115–116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 128, 130

Cargo, see Freight transportation

Caribbean, passenger travel to, 42

Carpooling, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

See also vanpooling

Cartography, see Maps and mapping

Census Bureau, see Bureau of the Census

CFCs, see Chlorofluorocarbons

CFS, see Commodity Flow Survey

Charleston, South Carolina, 51, 52, 60

Chemical and allied products

freight, 47, 62, 64

toxic pollutants, 9, 104, 116, 117, 120, 121–122, 123, 125, 126, 127–130, 133–138 (passim)

Chicago, Illinois

airports, 51, 125–126

high-speed rail, 23–24, 32

long-distance travel hubs, 23–24

waterborne transportation, 60

Children

air bags, 90

local travel, 39, 41

long-distance travel, 40, 41

fatalities, 90, 91, 92, 94

pedestrians injured, 94

risk exposure, data needs, 100

safety, 8, 83–84, 88, 90–93, 100

safely traveling to and from school, 93

school bus safety, 84, 88, 91, 92–93

vans, school transportation, 93

China, 111

Chlorofluorocarbons, 9, 117, 122, 133–134

Cities, see Urban areas

Clean Air Act, 114, 116, 121, 136, 137

Clean Water Act, 133

Climate change, see Global climate change

CO, see Carbon monoxide

CO2, see Carbon dioxide

Coal, freight, 47, 48, 62, 64

Coast Guard, see U.S. Coast Guard

Coastwise transportation, 25, 26, 59

Collector roads, 17, 18, 56

Columbia River, 60

Commercial transportation,

see Air transportation; Buses; Freight transportation; Railroads; Waterborne transportation

Commodities, see Freight transportation; Long-distance freight transportation; specific sectors

Commodity Flow Survey, 3–4, 14, 42–49

Communications, see Postal services; Telecommunications

Commuter air carriers, 58, 85

Commuter rail transportation, 2, 5, 16, 29, 30, 31, 59, 62, 63, 86

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109

Commuter travel, 3, 38–39

air carriers, 58, 85

carpools, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

congestion, 5, 10, 53–56, 57, 84

ferries, 5, 27, 29, 59, 62

time/distance, other than congestion, 38

trip chaining, 38

vanpools, 3, 29, 86

see also Business travel; Commuter rail transportation

Computer systems, 3, 13, 31–32

intelligent transportation systems, 3, 31, 32, 33, 148

Internet, 104

rail transportation, 31, 32

terrorism, 97

see also Databases

Congestion, 5, 10, 53–56, 57, 84

carpooling, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

Conservation, see Alternative and replacement fuels; Environment

Construction sector

airports, 10

highway construction, environmental impacts, 131, 137

Consumer expenditures on transportation, 5, 6, 67, 68–73

demographic factors, 72–73

regional factors, 71–72

urban/rural, 6, 72

Containers and container ports, 2–3, 26, 50–51

Containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

Contaminated materials, see Hazardous materials

Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard, 106, 107

Corrective Action Measures (database), 127

Cost and cost-benefit factors

air transportation, 37

bus transportation, 37

data needs, general, 10, 143, 145

dredging, 125

emission reductions, 104

fuel prices, 107, 112

hazardous materials spills, 124

oil prices, 8, 103, 110–111

oil spills, 124

passenger transportation, 4, 36–37, 145

personal-use vehicles, 36–37;

road transportation, congestion, 56, 57

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 6, 68

Council for Environmental Quality, 135

Courier services, 4, 44–45, 46, 48

Crashes

air bags, 88, 90, 134

aircraft fatalities, 7, 85, 86, 88, 89

alcohol abuse, 88, 94, 95

bicyclists, 4, 8, 37, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91, 93, 95–96

causes, 8

alcohol/drug abuse, 88, 94

darkness, 94, 96

congestion caused by, 56

light trucks, 43, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

motor vehicles, 8, 84

age factors, 8, 94, 95

buses, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

light trucks/SUVs, 43, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

personal-use, 7, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92

trucks, 88

property damage, 101

protective devices

air bags, 88, 90, 134

helmets, bicyclists, 96

safety belts, 88, 90, 92

worldwide data, 98

see also Accidents; Fatalities; Injuries

Crime, 83, 90, 101

terrorism, 83, 84, 96–98

Criteria and related pollutants, 116, 117, 119–120, 123, 126–127, 130, 138

carbon monoxide (CO), 9, 115–116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 128, 130

carbon dioxide (CO2), 9, 115–116, 122

nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 119, 130

nitrogen oxides (NOx), 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 128, 130

sulfur dioxide (SO2), 117, 119, 123, 128

lead, 9, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 128

volatile organic compounds, 9, 104, 117, 118, 119, 123, 128, 130, 132

Cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

Customs Service, see U.S. Customs Service

D

Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, freight, 147

Dams, see Locks and dams

Databases

hazardous materials, 124, 127–128

Intermodal Transportation Database, 10, 144, 146

National Transportation Atlas Database, 10, 146–148

oil spills, marine, 124

pipeline safety, 124

rail safety, 32

Toxics Release Inventory, 127–128, 133, 137–138

Data for Decisions, 144

Data needs, 1, 10–11, 32–33, 135–138, 143–148

accidents, 8, 88, 98, 100–101

aircraft, 33, 107

airports, 33, 126

air toxics, 116, 136–137

alternative and replacement fuels, 135–136

capital stock, 81

congestion, 54, 55, 56

cost factors, 10, 143, 145

demographic factors, risk exposure, 100, 143–144

economic indices, general, 10, 143, 145, 146, 148

employment, wages, 75

energy, 107, 135–136, 146

environment, 10, 116–117, 126, 136–138, 143, 146

fatalities, 100–101

freight, 43, 46, 48, 50, 145–146

geographic factors, 3, 10, 11, 144

hazardous air pollutants, 116, 136–137

hazardous materials, general, 127–128, 137

highways, 33, 88

intelligent transportation systems, 33, 148

international, safety data, 8, 84, 97, 98–100

international trade, 10, 11, 143, 147

local trips, 36

long-distance trips, 36

motor vehicles, 3, 8, 32–33

disposal, 138

fuel economy, 107, 135

noise pollution, 116–117, 137

passenger transportation, 36, 144, 145–146

pipelines, 3, 8, 32, 100

privacy, 148

rail transportation, 88, 132

risk exposure, 7–8, 100, 143–144

safety, 8, 10, 11, 146, 148

accidents, 8, 88, 98, 100–101

risk exposure, 8, 100, 143–144

standards, 136, 137, 138

transit, 3, 32–33, 107

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, 10, 144, 146, 147, 148

trucking, 136

vehicles, 3, 32–33, 107; see “motor vehicles” supra

waterborne transportation, 11, 33, 100

water pollution, 116–117

wildlife, 116–117

Defense, see National security

Deicing/anti-icing, 127

Delaware River, 60

Demographic factors

consumer spending, 72–73

data needs, risk exposure, 100, 143–144

fatalities, bicyclists and pedestrians, 93

marital status, 39, 40

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 88 (n. 2), 93

passenger travel, 37, 38

race/ethnicity, 39–41, 143–144

transit, 29

see also Age factors; Households; Rural areas; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas

Departments of U.S. Government, see headings beginning “U.S. Department of.”

Detroit, Michigan

freight, 53, 60

high-speed rail, 23, 32

waterborne transportation, 60

Developing countries, safety, 98–100

Diesel fuel, 117, 119, 120

Disabled persons, transit services, 31, 53, 59–60, 63

District of Columbia,

airports, 126–127

high-speed rail, 23, 24

Dredging, 9, 125, 137

Drivers’ licenses, see Licenses and licensing

Drug abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse

Dulles Airport, 126–127

E

Eastern U.S., oceanborne international trade, 4, 50, 51

see also specific states

Economic factors, 1, 4, 5–8, 67–82

Asia, 8, 48–49, 110–111

capital investment, 1, 7, 69, 76, 80, 81

for-hire transportation, 6, 68

freight, 44–48 (passim)

GDP, 4, 44, 45, 48, 68

international, 4, 10, 44, 48–53

revenues, 2, 6, 21, 61–62

gasoline, 8, 69, 72, 111

fuel economy, 8, 104, 105–109, 115, 135

GDP, 5–6, 67–71, 148

energy use, 105

freight transportation, 4, 44, 45, 48, 68

international trade, 4

transportation-related final demand, 5–6, 67–68, 69, 78

globalization, 10, 144, 147

global warming, 114

in-house transportation, 6, 68

international trade indices, 4, 5–6, 48–49

Japan, 111

labor productivity, 6, 53, 64, 76–77

oil imports, 8, 104, 109–111

passenger transportation indices, 39–42, 88 (n. 2), 144

productivity, 5, 10, 53, 64, 67, 74, 76–77

property damage, 8, 53, 61, 100, 101, 124, 146

rail transportation indices, 2, 6, 21, 61–65

Russia, 110

transportation expenditures, 5, 6

capital investment, 1, 7, 69, 76, 80, 81

consumer expenditures on transportation, 5, 6, 67, 68–73

government expenditures, 5, 7, 23, 67, 69, 78, 79–81, 145

transportation-related final demand, 5–6, 67–68, 69, 78

transportation revenues,

air transportation, passengers, 57

buses, 59

government revenues, 5, 6–7, 67, 78–79

rail freight, 2, 6, 21, 61–62

rail, passenger, 59

transit, 59, 61, 62

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 6, 68

trucking, general, 14, 44, 45, 46, 68

value-added, general, 44, 68

wages and salaries, 74, 75

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Employment; International trade; Socioeconomic status; specific sectors

EIA, see Energy Information Agency

Elderly persons

fatalities, 7, 94

local travel, 39, 41

long-distance travel, 40, 41

motor vehicle drivers, 7

pedestrians, 7, 94

risk exposure, data needs, 100

Electric vehicles, 113, 116, 136

El Paso, Texas, 53

Emergency medical services, see Medical services

Emission controls, 8–9, 10, 104, 113–114, 115–116, 121, 132

Employment, 67, 73–76

air transportation, 6, 15, 73, 75, 76, 77

bus transportation, 6, 75, 76, 77

business travel, 38, 40, 146; see also

Commuter travel

data needs, wages, 75

for-hire transportation, 6, 73–74

freight, 45

trucking, 6, 73–74, 75, 76, 77

warehousing, 6, 73–74

labor force participation, 4, 37, 74

labor productivity, 5, 6, 53, 64, 67, 74, 76–77

local travel, 73, 74; see also Commuter travel

motor vehicle operators, general, 75; see “bus transportation” supra

by mode/occupation, 73, 75

passenger travel, increases in, 37

pipelines, 73, 74, 76, 77

rail transportation, 16, 21, 73, 74, 75, 76

service industries, general, 73, 74

transit, 16, 75, 76, 77

trip purpose, 38; see also Business travel

trucking, 6, 73–74, 75, 76, 77

wages and salaries, 74, 75

warehousing, 6, 73–74

waterborne transportation, 73, 75

Energy Information Administration, 104 (n. 1), 111

Energy resources see Coal; Natural gas; Oil

Energy use/efficiency, 1, 8, 54

aircraft, 107, 109

congestion, 56, 57

data needs, 107, 135–136, 146

fuel economy standards, 8, 56, 105, 106, 107

light trucks, 8, 105, 106–107, 109, 135

motor vehicles, general, 8, 56, 57, 104, 105–109, 115, 135

personal-use vehicles, 8, 56, 57, 104, 105–107, 109

technological innovations, 8, 104, 107

trucks, 105, 106–107, 136

see also Alternative and replacement fuels; Diesel fuel; Gasoline

Environment, 1, 8–10, 104, 116–135, 136–138

airports, general, 9, 127, 137

data needs, 10, 116–117, 126, 136–138, 143, 146

habitat, 9, 125, 116–117

highway construction, 131, 137

sediment, dredged, 9, 125, 137

transit, 116

transportation infrastructure development impacts, 9, 124–127, 131, 137

see also Air pollution; Air quality; Hazardous materials; Noise; Pollution; Waste materials

Environmental Protection Agency

airport deicing, 127

air quality, 8, 9, 117, 119

CFCs, 122

criteria and related pollutants, 116, 117, 119–120, 123, 126, 127–130, 138

toxic pollutants, 120–122, 126, 127–130

gasoline, evaporative emissions, 9, 132

highway and bridge construction debris, 137

National Emission Trends, 117, 120, 126–127, 132, 136, 137

National Toxics Inventory, 120, 128, 136–137

noise, 123

oil and gas pipeline emissions, 122–123

pipelines, 137

toxics, 120–122, 126, 127–130, 132, 133, 135

National Toxics Inventory, 120, 128, 136–137

Toxics Release Inventory, 127–128, 133, 137–138

transportation equipment cleaning, 133

underground storage tanks, 127, 132–133

vessel dismantling, 135

Ethanol, 112, 116

Europe

air freight, 51

passenger travel to, 42

road safety, 98

see also specific countries

Expenditures, see Consumer transportation expenditures; Cost and cost-benefit factors; Transportation expenditures

Exports and imports, see International transportation; International trade

F

Fatalities, 7–8

age factors, 7, 90, 91, 92, 94

air transportation, 7–8, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89

bicyclists, 8, 84, 93, 94, 95

bus accidents, 86, 87, 91, 92

causes,

alcohol/drug abuse, 8, 88, 94, 95

age factors, 7, 94, 95

bicycling, 95, 96

darkness, 94, 96

motor vehicle/pedestrian, 8, 94, 95

children, 90, 91, 92, 94

data needs, 100–101

developing countries, 98–99

DOT policy, 7, 83

elderly persons, 7, 94

gender factors, 98–99

highways, 84, 85, 87, 88; see also “motor vehicles” infra

international data, by country, 99

by mode, 7–8, 85–88, 89, 91

by occupant/nonoccupant category, 87

motor vehicles, 7–8, 85, 86, 93, 94

bicyclists struck by, 7, 8, 83, 84, 86, 91, 93, 94

causes, 7, 8, 94, 95

developing countries, 99

light trucks, 7, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 93

motorcyclists, 84, 87, 88, 89, 91

pedestrians, 7–8, 84, 86, 93, 94

personal-use vehicles, 7, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92

pipelines, 8, 85, 100, 124, 137

recreational boating, 84, 85, 86

safety belts, 88

terrorism, 97

transit, 84, 85, 86, 91, 93, 100

trends, 84, 85, 87, 89, 94, 95, 97

trucks, 7, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91

U.S. totals, 7, 85–86 (passim), 99

world totals, 98–99

Federal Aviation Administration, 22, 25, 97, 122, 123, 137

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 27 (n. 6), 43

Federal government, 148

expenditures, 7, 23, 69, 78, 79, 80, 81

grants to state and local governments, 7, 79, 80

high-speed rail transportation, 23

intelligent transportation systems, 31

revenues, 6–7, 78

terrorism, response, 97–98

transit, subsidized, 3, 5, 29, 31

see also Legislation; Standards; specific departments and agencies

Federal Highway Administration, 10, 14, 54, 55, 56, 148

Federal Railroad Administration, 32

Federal Transit Administration, 3, 29, 32

Ferries, 5, 27, 29, 59, 62

Florida, waterborne transportation, 60

Foreign countries, see terms beginning “International.”; specific countries

Foreign trade, see International trade

For-hire transportation

economic value, 6, 68

employment, 6, 73–74

rented vehicles, 84

trucks, 4, 6, 45, 46, 68

France, 49

Freeways, see Interstate Highway System

Freight transportation, 42–53

agricultural products, 52

aircraft, shipments of, 52

air transportation, 2–4, 6, 15, 22, 44, 50, 51, 53, 124, 127

Canada, 49, 50, 51–52, 53, 147

chemical and allied products, 47, 62, 64

classification, standards, 43, 46, 48

coal, 47, 48, 62, 64

containers and container ports, 2–3, 26, 50–51

containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

by commodity, 43, 46–48

Commodity Flow Survey, 3–4, 14, 42–49

data needs, 43, 46, 48, 50, 145–146

distance factors, 46, 47

domestic, 3–4, 10, 14, 15, 16, 42–48

economic factors, 44–48 (passim)

GDP, 4, 44, 45, 48, 68

international, 4, 10, 44, 48–53

revenues, 2, 6, 21, 61–62

employment, 45

trucking, 6, 73–74, 75, 76, 77

warehousing, 6, 73–74

gasoline, shipments of, 47, 48

gateways, 52, 53, 54, 55, 147

geographic factors, 44, 48

GDP, 4, 44, 45, 48, 68

international, see International freight shipments

local vs long-haul, 46, 47

manufactured goods, international freight, 4, 48, 49–53

by mode, 44, 51

motor vehicle shipments, 52, 62, 64, 128

rail, 2, 4, 5, 16, 21–22, 44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 61–64

regional factors, 2, 46

revenues, 2, 6, 21, 61–62

shipment size (weight), 48, 49

state-level factors, 52, 53

interstate transportation, 62, 64

terrorism, 98

tonnage, 52

U.S. totals, 3–4, 13–14, 16, 25, 28, 42, 44–50 (passim), 59, 60

see also Ton-miles (freight)

waterborne, 2, 4, 25–27, 44, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59

barges, 26, 27, 133

international, 2, 4, 25, 28, 50–51

tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

ton-miles, 4, 16, 44, 46

wholesale/retail trade, 44, 45

see also Long-distance freight transportation;

Trucks and trucking

FHWA, see Federal Highway Administration

G

Gas, see Natural gas

Gasoline, 103

air pollution, 10, 117, 119–120, 121

evaporative emissions, 10, 132

economic indices, 8, 69, 72, 111; see “fuel economy” infra

freight shipments of, 47, 48

fuel economy, 8, 9, 104, 105–109, 115, 135

reformulated, 112–113, 135–136

taxes, 7, 78, 135

underground storage tanks, 10, 132–133

see also Alternative and replacement fuels

GDP, see Gross Domestic Product

Gender factors

local trips, 38, 39

long-distance travel, 40

passenger mobility patterns, 39–40

road accidents, injuries and fatalities, 98–99

General Accounting Office, see U.S. General Accounting Office

General aviation, 2, 15, 22, 25, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 100, 119

Global Positioning Systems, 3, 31–32

Geographic factors

data needs, 3, 10, 11, 144

freight, 44, 48

international trade, domestic transportation of, 10, 44, 143, 147

long-distance travel, 42

oil, geopolitical factors, 109–110

passenger travel, 41–42

transit, 59

see also Maps and mapping; Regional factors; Rural areas; Suburban areas; Urban areas; specific regions

Geographic information systems, 3

Georgia, high-speed rail, 24

Germany, 28, 49

Global climate change, 9, 104, 114–116

Global Positioning Systems, 3, 31–32, 98, 114

Government expenditures, 5, 7, 67, 69, 78, 79–81, 145

federal, 7, 23, 69, 78, 79, 80, 81

local, 7, 69, 79, 80, 81

state, 7, 69, 79, 80, 81

Government investment, 80–81

Government Performance and Results Act, 144

Government revenues, 5, 6–7, 67, 78–79

federal, 7, 78

highways, 7, 78, 79

inflation, impact on, 78

local, 7, 78–79

by mode, 78, 79

state, 7, 78–79, 80, 135

taxes, 7, 78–79, 135

waterborne transportation, 78–79

Government role, see Federal government;

Local government; State government

GPRA, see Government Performance and Results Act

Great Lakes, 16, 28, 59

ports, 2, 16, 25, 26, 125

Greece, 28

Greenhouse gases, 8, 104, 114–116

Kyoto Protocol, 8, 114

see also specific gases

Gross Domestic Product, 5–6, 67–71, 148

energy use, 105

freight transportation, 4, 44, 45, 48, 68

international trade, 4, 69

motor vehicles, 69

transportation-related final demand, 5–6, 67–68, 69, 78

Gulf ports, 50, 51

H

Habitat, see Wildlife

Handicapped persons, see Disabled persons

Harbors and ports, see Ports; specific cities

Hawaii, 60, 121

Hazardous air pollutants, 9, 104, 116, 121–122, 123, 130–131, 136–137

Hazardous materials, 10, 104, 116–117, 126–127

air transportation, 124, 127

costs of spills, 124

databases, 124, 127–128

data needs, 127–128, 137

dredged sediment, 9, 125, 137

pipeline accidents/injuries/fatalities, 85, 124

rail transportation, 124, 132

road transportation spills, 9, 124

spills, 123–124

standards, 130–131

state government, 127, 132, 133

state-level trends, 120–121

storage tanks, leakage, 10, 127, 132–133

vehicle and parts manufacturing, 127–130, 137–138

vehicle disposal, 133–134, 138

waterborne transportation, 124

vessel dismantling, 134–135

see also Hazardous air pollutants; Toxic pollutants

Hazardous Materials Information System, 124, 127

Helmets, bicyclists, 96

HFCs, see Hydrofluorocarbons

High-speed rail transportation, 14, 22, 23–24, 32

Highway Performance Monitoring System, 54

Highways, 14, 15, 17–20

accidents, 85

bridges, 1, 17, 20

collector, 17, 18, 56

condition and performance, 1, 14, 17, 18–19, 21, 33

developing countries, 99, 100

construction and materials, environmental impacts, 131, 137

data needs, 33, 88

extent and use, 14, 15, 17

fatalities, 7, 84, 85, 87, 88; see also “motor vehicles” under Fatalities

FHWA, 10, 14, 54, 55, 56, 148

government investment, 81

government revenues, 78, 79

government spending, 7, 80

injuries, 85; see also “motor vehicles” under Injuries

intelligent transportation systems, 31

Interstate Highway System, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 54, 56

rail crossings, 23, 31

rural, 14, 17, 19, 21

vehicle-miles traveled, 5, 54, 56

urban, 3, 5, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 54–56

see also Motor vehicles; Trucks and trucking

Highway Trust Fund, 7

Highway vehicles

asphalt and concrete, manufacturing emissions, 131

energy consumption, 104, 105–106

fatalities, 7, 84, 85, 87, 88

hazardous materials spills, 9, 124

number and use, 1–2, 15, 17–18, 21

vehicle-miles traveled, 15, 54

see also Motor vehicles; Trucks and trucking

Hispanics

local travel, 39, 41

long-distance travel, 40, 41

Hong Kong, 99

Households, 5, 6

consumer spending, general, 68, 71–73

income, 37, 39, 40–42, 68

motor vehicle ownership, 18, 20, 37

passenger travel, 37, 39, 40–41

trip chaining, 38

Houston, Texas, 5, 51, 52, 55

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 122, 138

I

Icing, aircraft, see Deicing/anti-icing

Illinois, 32, 52

see also Chicago, Illinois

Imports and exports, see International

transportation; International trade

Income, see Socioeconomic status

Incremental Train Control System, 32

Indiana, 52, 60

Information technology, see Computer systems

In-house transportation, 6, 68

Injuries, 83

air bags, causing, 90

air transportation, 85

bicyclists, 94, 95

data needs, 8, 10, 100, 146

elderly persons, 94

gender factors, 98–99

medical services, 88, 95, 97

by mode, 86, 87

motor vehicles, 84, 94

air bags, 90

pedestrians, 94

rail transportation, 85

transit, 85

trucks, 7, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91

U.S. totals, 85, 87

worldwide totals, 98–99

see also Fatalities

Inland waterways

condition and performance, 59

dredging, 9, 125, 137

extent and use, 2, 16, 25, 59

fuel tax, 78–79

locks and dams, 25, 59

recreation and tourism, 25

see also Great Lakes; Ports; Vessels

Integrated Pipeline Information System, 124

Integrated Urban Toxics Strategy, 121–122

Intelligent transportation systems, 3, 14, 31, 32, 33, 148

Intermodal/multimodal transportation, 2, 25–26, 43–44, 50, 53, 62, 64

containers and container ports, 2–3, 26, 50–51

containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

database, 10, 144, 146

data needs, 144, 146, 147

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 23, 144

Intermodal Transportation Database, 10, 144, 146

International agreements

greenhouse gases, Kyoto Protocol, 8, 114

Marine Pollution Convention, 125

North American Free Trade Agreement, 52

ozone layer depletion, 138

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 98

International freight shipments, 10, 25, 48–53

air, 50, 51

by country, 49

data needs, 50

domestic activity and, 10, 44, 143, 147

gateways, 52, 53, 54, 55, 147

by mode, 51

ports, 50–51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 147

rail, 50, 51, 52

trucking, 51, 52, 53

value of goods, 49–50

U.S. merchandise trade, 4, 48, 49–53

waterborne, 4, 25, 28, 50–51

International long-distance trips, 4–5, 42

International perspectives

aircraft noise, 123

developing countries, safety, 98–100

global climate change, 8, 104, 114–116

safety, 7–8, 84, 97, 98–100

terrorism, 97

International Roughness Index, 14

International trade, 4, 48–53

Asia, 4, 48, 50–51; see also specific countries

container ports, 2, 26, 50–51

data needs, 10, 50, 143, 147

domestic transportation of, 10, 44, 143, 147

eastern U.S., 50, 51

economic indices, general, 5–6, 48–49

GDP and, 4, 69

globalization, 10, 144, 147

motor vehicles, 6, 52, 128

North American Free Trade Agreement, 52

oil, 8, 104, 109–111

Pacific Rim, 4, 48, 50–51

U.S. Customs Service, 147

U.S. merchandise trade, 4, 48, 49–53

see also specific countries

International transportation

air transportation, 5, 42, 51

freight, see International freight shipments

gateways, 52, 53, 54, 55, 147

U.S. Customs Service, 147

waterborne, 2, 4, 25, 28, 50–51

Internet, 104

Interregional freight transportation, 46

Interstate freight transportation, 62, 64

Interstate Highway System

condition, 14, 17, 18, 19

extent and use, 15, 54, 56

Intoxication, see Alcohol and drug abuse

Intraregional freight transportation, 46

Investment, see Capital investment

ISTEA, see Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)

ITS, see Intelligent transportation systems

J

Japan, 28, 49, 51, 84, 99, 111

K

Kennedy International Airport, 51, 53

Kyoto Protocol, 8, 114

L

Labor, see Employment; Productivity

Laredo, Texas, 53

Lead, 9, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 128, 134

Leaking underground storage tanks, 10, 127, 132–133

Legislation

Americans with Disabilities Act, 59, 61, 63

Clean Air Act, 114, 116, 121, 136, 137

Clean Water Act, 133

Kyoto Protocol, congressional approval, 114

Government Performance and Results Act, 144

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 23, 144

Rail Passenger Service Act, 22

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA–21), 10, 23, 83–84, 144, 146, 147, 148

Leisure, see Recreational activities; Recreational boating

Licenses and licensing, drivers

developing countries, driver training, 100

number of, 37

Light trucks

accidents, 43, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

data needs, 135

energy efficiency, 8, 105, 106–107, 109, 135

injuries/fatalities, 7, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 93

number and use, 1–2, 8, 15, 106–107, 108

pollutants released during manufacturing, 131

sport utility vehicles, 1–2, 17, 84, 91, 105, 108

Liquefied petroleum gas, 111–112

Local government, 7, 38, 69, 78–79, 80, 81

Local roads

bridges, 17

vehicle-miles traveled, 56

Local travel, 4, 13, 35–37

African-Americans, 39

age factors, 39, 41

defined, 35

employment, 73, 74; see also Commuter travel

gender factors, 38, 39

household income, 37, 41–42

by mode, 37

passenger-miles, 35–36, 37, 41

purpose, 38; see also Commuter travel

rail, 2, 16, 37; see also Commuter rail transportation

trip chaining, 38

walking as a form of transportation, 4, 8, 37, 84, 90, 91, 93–95; see also Pedestrians

Locks and dams, 25, 59

Long Beach, California

international freight, 50–51

port facilities, 2, 26, 50–51, 52, 60

Long-distance freight transportation, 46

agricultural products,

air, 2, 4, 6, 15, 22, 44, 50, 51, 53, 124, 127

Canada, 49, 50, 51–52, 53, 147

chemical and allied products, 47, 62, 64

coal, 47, 48, 62, 64

containers and container ports, 2, 26, 50–51

containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

by commodity, 47

economic factors, 4, 10, 44, 48–53

international; see International freight shipments

interstate, 62, 64

manufactured goods, 48, 49, 52

Mexico, 49, 50, 51–52, 53, 147

minerals, 47, 48, 64

by mode, 44, 51

rail, 44

ton-miles, 15, 44, 46, 51, 62, 64

see also Commodity Flow Survey

Long-distance travel (trips), 4, 13, 35

African-Americans, 40

age factors, 40, 41

air transportation, 2, 4, 6, 13, 15, 22, 25, 37, 40, 57–59, 125–127

American Travel Survey, 38, 42

buses, 5, 37, 38

business, 38, 40

children, 40, 41

cost factors, 37

domestic, 36

elderly persons, 40, 41

extent of, 35, 36, 38, 40, 41

gender factors, 40

geographic factors, 42

Hispanics, 40, 41

income factors, see “socioeconomic status” infra

international, 42

by mode, 37

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 38

personal-use vehicles, 36–37, 40

purpose of, 38, 40

race/ethnicity, 40, 41

rail transportation, 5, 37, 38

socioeconomic status, 40, 41

trends, 35, 36

Los Angeles, California

airports, 51

high-speed rail, 23

waterborne transportation, 50, 51, 52, 60

Louisiana, 51, 60

LPG, see Liquefied petroleum gas

Lumber and wood products

alcohol fuels, 113

freight shipments, 47

international trade, 52

M

Mail, see Postal services

Maintenance and repair, pollutant emissions, 131–133

Manufactured goods, 47

international freight, 4, 48, 49, 52

U.S. merchandise trade, 48, 49, 49–53

vehicles and vehicle parts, pollutants, 10, 117, 127–131, 137–138

Maps and mapping

airports, enplanements, 58

freight

gateways, 55

rail networks, 63

ports, 54, 60

high-speed rail corridors, 24

transit markets, 61

Marine Pollution Convention, 125

Marine vessels

containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

dismantling, 134–135

recreational boats, 2, 16, 25, 84, 85, 86, 129, 131

tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

Maritime Administration, 27, 28, 134–135

Maritime transportation, 2, 4

accidents, 84, 85, 86

coastwise transportation, 25, 26, 59

cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

data needs, 11

extent and use, 2, 16, 25–27

freight, 2, 4, 25–27, 44, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59

containers and container ports, 2–3, 26, 50–51

containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

see also Ports; Vessels

Maryland, 2

Massachusetts, 60

Mass transit, see Transit

Medical services

accidental injuries, 88, 95

terrorism, 97

Men, see Gender factors

Methane, 114

Methanol, 112–113

Mexico, 4

freight, 49, 50, 51–52, 53, 147

North American Free Trade Agreement, 52

passenger travel, 42

Miami, Florida, international freight, 52, 60

Michigan

freight, 52, 53, 60

high-speed rail, 23, 32

waterborne transportation, 60

Mid-range travel (trips), 11

Midwest U.S.

consumer spending, 71

high-speed rail, 23

see also specific states

Minerals and mining, 47, 48, 64

coal, 47, 48, 62, 64

Minnesota, 60

Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity; specific groups

Missouri, 60

Mobility

database on, 10

factors associated with, 39–42

Modified Marine Safety Information System, 124

Motorcycles, 15, 18, 21, 84, 87, 88, 89, 91, 123

Motor Freight Transportation and Warehousing Survey, 68

Motor oil, 134

Motor vehicles

accidents, 7, 84

age factors, 7, 94, 95

buses, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

light trucks/SUVs, 43, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

pedestrians, 7, 84, 86, 93, 94, 95, 96

personal-use, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92

trucks, 88

age of vehicle, 20, 31, 33

air bags, 88, 90, 134

air pollution, 9, 117, 129

air conditioning (CFCs), 9, 122, 138

emission controls, 8, 10, 104, 113–114, 115–116, 121, 132

pollutants released during manufacturing, 128, 129

standards, 113–114, 115–116, 121

alcohol/drug abuse by drivers, 94, 95

alternative vehicles, 8, 112–113, 115–116

availability of, 36–37

batteries, 113, 131, 134, 138, 138

consumer spending, 69, 71, 72–73

data needs, 3, 8, 32–33

disposal, 138

fuel economy, 107, 135

elderly drivers/pedestrians, 8, 94

electric vehicles, 8, 113, 116, 136

employment of operators, 75

bus transportation, 6, 75, 76, 77

energy consumption/efficiency, 8, 56, 57, 104, 105–109, 115, 135

fatalities, 7–8, 85, 86, 93, 94

bicyclists struck by, 8, 83, 84, 86, 91, 93, 94

causes, 7, 94, 95

developing countries, 99

light trucks, 7, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 93

motorcyclists, 84, 87, 88, 89, 91

pedestrians, 7, 84, 86, 93, 94

freight, shipment of motor vehicles, 52, 62, 64, 128

fuel taxes, 7, 78, 135

GDP, 69

injuries, 84, 94

air bags, causing, 90

pedestrians, 94

international trade in, 52, 128

motor oil, maintenance spills, 131

noise pollution, 9, 123, 137

number of, 1–2, 13, 15, 17–18, 98, 106–107

ownership, household, 18, 20, 37

personal consumption, 6

pollutants, manufacturing phase, 117, 127–131

recycling of waste, 133

safety belts, 88, 90, 92

taxis, 75, 84, 91

technological innovations, 112–113, 115–116, 117, 136

vans,

fuel economy, 109

number of, 108

used in school transportation, 93

vanpooling, 3, 29, 86

vehicle-miles traveled, 5, 8, 15, 56

air pollution, 117, 119

data needs, 100

fatalities, 7, 84

by functional class, 56

personal-use vehicles, 37, 39

see also Buses; Diesel fuel; Gasoline; Highway vehicles; Personal-use vehicles; Road transportation; Trucks and trucking

Multimodal transportation, see Intermodal/multimodal transportation

N

NAFTA, see North American Free Trade Agreement

National Academy of Sciences, 143

National accounts, 81

National Airspace Commission, 98

National Defense Reserve Fleet, 135

National Emission Trends, 117, 120, 126–127, 132, 136, 137

National Highway System, 15

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 84, 90, 92

National Industry-Occupation Employment Matrix, 75

National Occupant Protection Use Survey, 90

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, 22, 25

National Railroad Passenger Corporation,

see Amtrak

National Research Council, 10

National security

government expenditures, 69

National Defense Reserve Fleet, 135

oil supply, 104, 109–111

waterborne transportation, 28

National Toxics Inventory, 120, 128, 136–137

National Transportation Atlas Database, 10, 146–148

National Transportation Safety Board, 92, 93, 124

National Travel Survey, 36

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 10, 18, 20, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 55, 56–57, 88, 93, 148

Natural gas

as alternative fuel, 112, 113, 116

energy use, 100

liquefied petroleum gas, 111–112

pipelines, 3, 6, 9, 13, 17, 27, 76, 85, 86, 103, 122–123, 124

accidents/injuries/fatalities, 8, 85, 86, 124, 137

Navigational aids, Global Positioning Systems, 3, 31–32, 98

Netherlands, 49, 99

New Jersey

freight, 51, 52, 60

waterborne transportation, 51, 52, 60

New York City

airports, 51, 53

Canadians, trips to,

high-speed rail, 23

waterborne transportation, 51, 52, 60

New York State

freight, 51, 52, 60

high-speed rail, 23

zero emission vehicles, 113–114

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 119, 130

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), 104, 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 130

Nitrous oxide (N2O), 114

Noise

aircraft, 9, 123, 137

data needs, 116–117, 137

motor vehicle traffic, 9, 123, 137

railroad vehicles, 123, 137

Nonhazardous industrial wastes, 9, 130

Norfolk, Virginia, 51, 52, 60

North America, see Canada; Mexico; Regional factors, specific U.S. cities and states

North American Free Trade Agreement, 52

North American Interchange on Transportation Statistics, 11, 148

North American Transportation Statistics Project, 147

North Carolina, 24, 52

Northeast U.S.

consumer spending, 71–72

high-speed rail transportation, 23, 24

see also specific states

O

Oakland, California, 52

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 43

Ocean transportation, see Maritime transportation

Office of Pipeline Safety, 27 (n. 6), 124

O’Hare Airport, 125–126

Ohio, 52, 60

Oil, 3, 9, 103

consumption, 8, 103, 104, 110, 111

fuel economy standards, 8, 56, 105, 106, 107

highway vehicles, 8, 56, 57, 104, 105–109, 115, 135

foreign sources, 8, 104, 109–111

freight, 43, 51; see also “waterborne transportation (tankers)” infra

international transportation, 28, 51, 52

labor productivity, 76, 77

motor oil, 135

pipelines, 3, 6, 9, 13, 17, 27, 76, 85, 86, 103, 122–123, 124

prices, 103, 104

spills, 9, 104, 123–124

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 104, 110

supply, 8, 103, 104, 109–111

waterborne transportation (tankers), 9, 26, 27, 28, 43, 104, 123–124

Oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

On-time performance, 57, 58

Oregon, 23, 32

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 109–110

Otay Mesa, California, 53

Ozone, ground–level, 120

Ozone layer, 9, 122, 138

chlorofluorocarbons, 9, 117, 122, 133–134

P

Pacific Rim, trade with, 4, 48, 50–51

Pacific states, high-speed rail, 23

Parcels, see Courier services; Postal services

Parking lots, accidents, 94

Particulate matter, 117, 118, 119, 120, 125

Passenger-miles, 4, 6, 7, 76

air pollutants, 116

air transportation, 15, 22, 57, 100

European road transportation, 98

geographic origin of travelers, 42

household income, 41

local travel, 35–36, 37, 41

long-distance travel, 36, 41

racial/ethnic factors, 41

rail transportation, 109

by mode, 37

transit, 3, 5, 16, 59

U.S. total, 13, 35, 36

waterborne, 16

Passenger transportation, 4, 35–42

air, 2, 4–5, 6, 13, 15, 22, 25, 37, 40, 57–59, 125–127

baggage lost, 5, 58–59, 145

commuter, 58, 85

passenger-miles, 15, 22, 57, 100

business travel, 38, 40, 146

Canada, 23, 42

Caribbean, 42

congestion, 5, 10, 53–56, 57, 84

carpooling, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

costs of, 4, 36–37, 145

data needs, 36, 144, 145–146

distance, see Local travel; Long-distance travel (trips); Mid-range travel (trips); Passenger-miles

demographic/socioeconomic factors, 39–42, 88 (n. 2), 144

economic indices, 39–42, 88 (n. 2), 144

energy use and, 104, 105, 107, 109

household-related data, 37, 39, 40–41

income, 39, 40–41, 68

trip chaining, 38

Mexico, 42

mid-range travel (trips), 11

miles of, U.S. total, 13, 35, 36

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 10, 18, 20, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 44, 56–57, 88, 93

purpose, 38

rail, 5, 22

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109

commuter rail transportation, 2, 5, 16, 29, 30, 31, 59, 62, 63, 86

high-speed rail transportation, 14, 22, 23–24, 32

rural areas, 39, 42

transit, 3, 32–33

school children, 83, 88, 90–93

socioeconomic status and, 4, 37

local, 38, 39

long-distance, 40, 41

urban areas, 39, 40, 41–42; see “congestion” supra

waterborne, 16, 25, 26–27

cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

ferries, 27, 29, 59, 62

see also Buses; Commuter rail transportation; Commuter travel; Local travel; Longdistance travel (trips); Personal-use vehicles; Transit

Pedalcyclists, see Bicyclists

Pedestrians, 83, 93–95, 100

accidents/injuries, 7, 84, 86, 93, 94, 95, 96

alcohol abuse by, 8, 94

bicycling on sidewalks, 96

developing countries, safety, 100

elderly, 7, 94

fatalities, 7, 8, 84, 86, 93, 94

age factors, 8, 94

see also Walking as a form of transportation

Pennsylvania, 52

Performance Monitoring System, 59

Personal-use vehicles, 4, 36–37

accidents/fatalities, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 92

age of motor vehicle, 20, 31, 33

air bags, 88, 90, 134

availability of, 36–37

bicycles, 4, 8, 37, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91, 93, 95–96

carpooling, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

child safety, 88, 92

cost of, 36–37

energy efficiency, 8, 56, 57, 104, 105–107, 109

gender factors, 39

government revenues, 79

households owning, 18, 20, 37

injuries, 87

long-distance travel, 36–37, 40

motorcycles, 15, 18, 21, 84, 87, 88, 89, 91, 123

number of, 1–2, 15, 18, 20, 21, 98, 106–107, 108

recycling of waste, 133

safety, 88, 90

trip chaining, 38

vehicle-miles traveled, 37, 39

see also Light trucks

Petroleum and petroleum products,

see Gasoline; Motor oil; Natural gas; Oil

Phoenix, Arizona, 5, 55

Pipelines,

accidents/fatalities, 85, 86

data needs, 8, 100

property damage, 124

spills, 124, 137

air pollution, 8, 9, 122–123

data needs, 3, 8, 32, 100

economic indices, 44

employment, 73, 74, 76, 77

energy use, 105

extent, use, and performance, 3, 4, 17, 27, 44, 51

government revenues, 78

government spending, 7, 80

hazardous materials, accidents/injuries/

fatalities, 85, 124

labor productivity, 6, 76, 77

oil and gas, 3, 6, 9, 13, 17, 27, 76, 85, 86, 103, 122–123, 124

Police accident reports, 96

Political factors, foreign oil supply, 8, 104, 110

Pollution, 116–135, 136–138

aircraft

airborne emissions, 9, 117, 122, 126

icing/deicing agents, 127

manufacturing releases, 129, 130–131

vehicles and vehicle parts, pollutants, 127–128

see also Air pollution; Air quality; Environment; Hazardous materials; Noise; Solid waste; Toxic pollutants; Waste materials Water pollution

Polychlorinated biphenyls, 134–135

Ports

condition and performance, 25, 26, 59

containers and container ports, 2–3, 26, 50–51

cruise ships, 25

dredged sediment, 9, 125, 137

extent and use, 2, 16, 25–26, 54, 59

Great Lakes, 2, 16, 25, 26, 125

Gulf ports, 50, 51

international freight, 50–51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 147

international gateways, 52, 53, 54, 55, 147

pollution, 125

regional factors, general, 2, 50

tonnage handled, 16, 52, 60

see also Airports; specific cities

Postal services, 4, 43, 44, 46, 48

U.S. Postal Service, 131

Present Serviceability Rating, 17

Presidents Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, 97–98

Productivity, 5, 6, 10, 53, 64, 67, 74, 76–77

Propane, 111

Property damage, 8, 53, 61, 100, 101, 124, 146

Property taxes, 78

Protective devices, see Air bags; Helmets;

Seat belts

Public opinion

air transportation, consumer complaints, 5, 58–59

Amtrak, 65

road transportation, congestion, 57

Puget Sound, 60

R

Race/ethnicity

African-Americans, 39, 40

Asians/Pacific Islanders, 41

data needs, 143–144

Hispanics, 39, 40, 41

local travel, 41

long-distance travel, 40, 41

Rail Passenger Service Act, 22

Railroads, 14

accidents, 32, 85

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109

coal freight, 47, 48, 62

commuter rail transportation, 5, 16, 29, 30, 31, 59, 62, 63, 86

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109

condition and performance, 21, 61–65

data needs, 88, 132

disabled persons, 63

disposal of infrastructure, 133

economic indices, 2, 6, 21, 61–62

employment, 16, 21, 73, 74, 75, 76

energy use, 105, 109

extent and use, 2, 16, 21–22, 61–64

fatalities, 84, 85, 86, 88, 100–101

Federal Railroad Administration, 32

fueling emissions, 132

freight, 2, 4, 5, 16, 21–22, 44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 61–64

ton-miles, 4, 6, 44, 46, 62, 64

government spending, 7, 80

hazardous materials, 124, 132

high-speed rail transportation, 14, 22, 23–24, 32

highway crossings, 23, 31

injuries, 85

information technology, 31, 32

intermodal, 62

international freight, 50, 51, 52

labor productivity, 6, 64, 74

long-distance travel, 5, 37, 38

noise, 123, 137

passenger transportation, 5, 22

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109

commuter rail transportation, 2, 5, 16, 29, 30, 31, 59, 62, 63, 86

high-speed rail transportation, 14, 22, 23–24, 32

pollutants released during manufacturing, 129

regional factors, general, 2, 16

safety, 14, 23, 31, 32; see also “accidents” supra

speed, 32; see “high-speed rail transportation” supra

urban, commuter rail transportation, 2, 5, 16, 29, 30, 31, 59, 62, 63, 86

Amtrak, 2, 5, 16, 22, 23, 24, 64–65, 109,

Rapid transit, see Commuter rail transportation

Recreational activities

bicycling, 93

inland waterways, 25

purpose for travel, 38

Recreational boating

accidents/injuries, 85

fatalities, 84, 85, 86

number of boats, 2, 16, 25

pollutants released during manufacturing, 129, 131

Recycling of waste, 133–135, 138

Reformulated gasoline, 112–113, 135–136

Regional factors

air transportation, 15

consumer spending, 71–72

freight transportation, 2, 46

high-speed rail transportation, 23

ports, 2, 50

railroads, 2, 16

see also specific regions

Regulations, see Standards

Repair services, see Maintenance and repair

Replacement fuels, see Alternative and replacement fuels

Retail trade, see Wholesale/retail trade

Revenues, see Transportation revenues

Rivers, 60

see also Inland waterways

Road transportation, 7, 14, 15, 17–20, 54–57

arterial roads, 14, 17, 18, 19, 54, 56

bridges, 1, 17, 20, 33, 137

carpooling, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

collector roads, 17, 18, 56

congestion, 5, 10, 53–56, 57, 84

freight, see Trucks and trucking

hazardous materials, 9, 124

local roads, 17, 56

rural areas, 14, 17, 19, 21

vehicle-miles traveled, 5, 54, 56

safety

international trends, 98–100

U.S. trends, 83–87 (passim), 88–96

speed and speed limits

commuting, 39, 54, 56

energy efficiency, 105

state investments, 81

system mileage, 1, 14, 16, 17

see also Highways; Highway vehicles; Motor

vehicles; Vehicle-miles traveled

Rural areas

commuting speed/congestion, 39, 56, 57

consumer spending, 6, 72

passenger travel, 39, 42

roads and highways, 14, 17, 19, 21

vehicle-miles traveled, 5, 54, 56

transit, 3, 32–33

Russia, 110

S

Safety, see Transportation safety

Safety belts, 88, 90, 92

San Francisco, California

airports, 51, 127

high-speed rail, 23

waterborne transportation, 60

Satellite accounts, see Transportation Satellite Accounts

School bus safety, 83, 88, 91, 92–93

Scrap materials, see Recycling of waste

Sea-going shipping, see Marine vessels;

Maritime transportation

Seat belts, see Safety belts

Seattle, Washington, sea-going freight, 2, 26, 51, 52

Sediment, dredged, 9–10, 125, 137

Service industries, general

consumer spending on transportation, 73

employment, 73, 74

freight and, 44

value-added, 44

vehicle maintenance and repair, pollutant emissions, 131–133

Ships, see Maritime transportation; Vessels

Short trips, see Local travel

Singapore, 51

Socioeconomic status

bus use, 37

consumer spending, general, 68, 71–73

freight, 44

household income, 39, 40–41, 68

passenger travel, 37

local, 38, 39

long-distance, 40, 41

per capita income, 4, 37, 44

transportation industry wages and salaries, 74

Solid waste, 9, 116–117, 127, 129, 130

highway and bridge construction debris, 137

recycling, 133

vehicle disposal, 10, 133–135, 138

South Carolina, Charleston, 51, 52, 60

Southern U.S.

consumer spending, 6, 71–72

high-speed rail, 24

see also specific states

South Korea, 99, 111

Speed

road transportation, commuting, 39

transit, 61

Sport utility vehicles, 1–2, 17, 84, 91, 105, 108

Standards

air quality,

Clean Air Act, 114, 116, 121, 136, 137

criteria and related pollutants, 116, 117, 119–120, 123, 126–127, 130, 138

electric utilities, 61

greenhouse gases, 8, 114

motor vehicle emissions, 113–114, 115–116, 121

urban, 115–116

data needs, 136, 137, 138

developing countries, road safety, 100

freight classification, 43, 46, 48

fuel economy, 8, 56, 105, 106, 107

hazardous materials, 130–131

leaking underground tanks, 132–133

metric/U.S. weights and measures, conversion, 155–156

national accounts, 81

noise, 123

pipeline safety, 124

school children, transportation of, 92, 93

vehicle manufacturing pollutants, 130–131

State government, 143

expenditures, 7, 69, 79, 80, 81

federal grants to, 7, 79, 80

hazardous materials leaks, 127, 132, 133

investment, road transportation, 81

lead-acid battery recycling, 134

revenues, 6–7, 78–79, 80, 135

safety belt laws, 90

vehicle maintenance and repair, pollution controls, 131–132

State-level factors

air toxic pollutants, 120–121

freight transportation, 52, 53

interstate transportation, 62, 64

see also specific states

Statistical methodology, 1

safety rates, 84, 87

see also Data needs

St. Lawrence Seaway, 16

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 104, 110

Suburban areas, 39, 41–42, 57

Sulfur emissions, 117, 119, 123, 128

System mileage, 13

oil and gas pipelines, 3

road transportation, 1, 14, 16, 17

transit, 3

T

Tacoma, Washington, 2, 26, 51, 52

Taiwan, 28, 49, 99, 111

Tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

Taxation

inland waterway fuels, 78–79

motor vehicle fuels, 7, 78, 135

property, 78

Taxis, 6, 75, 84, 91

TEA-21, see Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

Technological innovations

aircraft/airport deicing, 127

alternative and replacement fuels, 111–114

alternative vehicles, 8, 112–113

developing countries, road safety, 100

emission controls, 104, 121

fuel efficiency, 8, 104, 107

Global Positioning Systems, 3, 31–32, 98, 114

maritime navigation, 28

motor vehicle safety, air bags, 88, 90, 134

safety

air bags, 88, 90, 134

general, 7

Telecommunications, 13

Internet, 104

terrorism, 97

Terrorism, 83, 84, 96–98

Texas

freight, 52, 53

Houston, congestion, 5

Texas Transportation Institute, 5, 55, 56–57

Tires, safety, 105

Ton-miles (freight), 6, 76, 148

air transportation, 3, 15, 44, 46

by commodity, 47, 48

growth factors and, 45

local vs long-haul, 46

by mode, 44, 46, 51

intermodal, 43–44

long-distance freight, 15, 44, 46, 51, 62, 64

oil and gas pipelines, 17

pipeline, 44, 46

rail, 4, 6, 44, 46, 62, 64

by shipment size, 49

trucking, 4, 44, 45, 46, 51

U.S. total, 3–4, 13–14, 35, 42–43

waterborne transportation, 4, 16, 44, 46

Toxic pollutants, 9, 104, 116, 117, 120–123, 125, 126, 133–135

National Toxics Inventory, 120, 128, 136–137

vehicle cleaning, 133

vehicle maintenance, 131–132

vehicle manufacture, 127–130, 137–138

Toxics Release Inventory, 127–128, 133, 137–138

see also Hazardous materials

Toxics Release Inventory, 127–128, 133, 137–138

Trains, see Railroads

Transit

accidents, 84, 85

buses, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92–93

condition and performance, 31, 53, 59, 61, 62, 63

data needs, 3, 32–33, 107

demand response, 16, 31, 59, 61, 62, 63, 86

disabled persons, 31, 53, 59, 61, 63

economic factors, 16, 75, 76, 77

government revenues, 59, 61, 62, 79

government spending, 3, 59, 61, 62

employment, 16, 75, 76, 77

energy use, 105

environmental factors, 116

extent and use, 3, 5, 13, 16, 29–31, 39, 59, 61, 62

fatalities, 84, 85, 86, 91, 93, 100

federal subsidies, 3, 5, 29, 31

Federal Transit Administration, 3, 29, 32

ferries, 5, 27, 29, 59, 62

government revenues/expenditures, 59, 61, 62, 79

injuries, 85

intelligent transportation systems, 31

labor productivity, 76, 77

passenger-miles, 3, 5, 16, 59

property damage, 61

rural areas, 3, 32–33

terrorism, 84

urban capacity and use, 3, 5, 13, 16, 29–31, 39, 59, 61, 62

vehicles, 3, 16, 29, 31

see also Buses; Road transportation; Railroads

Transportation employment, see Employment

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), 10–11, 23, 83–84, 144, 146, 147, 148

Transportation expenditures, 5, 6

capital investment, 7, 69, 76, 80, 81

consumer expenditures on transportation, 5, 6, 67, 68–73

government expenditures, 5, 7, 67, 69, 78, 79–81, 145

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors

Transportation-related final demand, 67–68, 69, 78

Transportation Research Board, 92, 144

Transportation revenues

air transportation, passengers, 57

buses, 59

rail freight, 2, 6, 21, 61–62

rail passenger travel, 59

transit, 59, 61, 62

see also Government revenues; Gross Domestic Product

Transportation safety, 1, 7–8, 53, 83–102

air bags, 88, 90, 134

children, 39, 41, 83–84, 88, 90–93, 94, 100

data needs, 8, 10, 11, 100, 146, 148

accidents, 8, 88, 98, 100–101

risk exposure, 8, 100, 143–144

demographic factors, 39–41, 100, 143–144

developing countries, 98–100

elderly persons, 7, 94, 100

foreign countries, 8, 84, 97, 98–100

helmets, bicyclists, 96

medical services, injuries, 88, 95

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 84, 90, 92

National Transportation Safety Board, 92, 93, 124

rail transportation, 14, 23, 31, 32

risk exposure, 8, 94, 95, 100

safety belts, 88, 90, 92

school bus safety, 83, 88, 91, 92–93

terrorism, 83, 84, 96–98

waterborne transportation, vessel

dismantling, 134

see also Accidents; Alcohol and drug abuse; Crashes; Fatalities; Hazardous materials; Injuries; Toxic pollutants

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 6, 68

Travel, see Business travel; Mid-range travel (trips); Long-distance travel (trips)

Trip purpose, 38

business travel, 38, 40, 146

recreational, 2, 16, 25, 84, 85, 86, 93, 129, 131

Trucks and trucking, 4, 45

accidents, 88

age of vehicle, 20

air pollution, 117

data needs, 136

economic indices, 14, 44, 45, 46, 68

employment, 6, 73–74, 75, 76, 77

energy efficiency, 105, 106–107, 136

for-hire, 4, 6, 45, 46, 68

in-house transportation, 6, 68

injuries/fatalities, 7, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91

international, 51, 52, 53

labor productivity, 6, 76

Mexican freight, 49, 50, 51–52, 53, 147

manufacturing of, pollutants, 129

number and use, 2, 4, 15, 18, 21, 44, 98

ton-miles, 4, 44, 45, 46, 51

vehicle disposal, 133

see also Light trucks

TSAs, see Transportation Satellite Accounts

U

Underground storage tanks, 10, 127, 132–133

Union Pacific Railroad, 23, 32

United Kingdom, 28, 49, 51, 99–100

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 114

Urban areas

air pollution, 113–114, 115–116, 121–122, 126

bicycle lanes, 96

buses, 16, 29, 37

commuting speed, 39; see also “congestion” infra

congestion, 5, 10, 53–56, 57, 84

carpooling, 3, 29, 39, 57, 86, 116

consumer spending, 72

developing countries, 99

highways, 3, 5, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 54–56

intelligent transportation systems, 3, 31

intercity travel, 2, 5; see also Amtrak

buses, 37

cost of, 37

employment, 73, 74

high-speed rail, 14, 22, 23–24, 32

rail, general, 27

local passenger travel, 39, 42

long-distance travel, 40, 42; see “intercity travel” supra

sprawl, 99

suburban areas, 39, 41–42, 57

transit capacity and use, 3, 5, 13, 16, 29–31, 39, 59, 61, 62

vehicle-miles traveled, 5, 54, 56

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 10, 25, 43, 59, 137

U.S. Coast Guard, 27, 28, 31, 124

U.S. Customs Service, 147

U.S. Department of Commerce, 43

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 75

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 6, 68

see also Bureau of the Census

U.S. Department of State, 97

U.S. Department of Transportation

air transportation, consumer complaints, 58–59

data needs, 144

hazardous materials spills, 124

local travel, 35

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, 11, 18, 20, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 44, 56–57, 88, 93

safety policy, 7, 83, 144

school children, safety, 83–84

see also Bureau of Transportation Statistics; specific administrations

U.S. merchandise trade, 4, 48, 49–53

U.S. Navy, 134

U.S. Postal Service, 131

V

Vanpooling, 3, 29, 86

Vans

fuel economy, 109

number of, 108

used in school transportation, 93

Vehicle disposal, 10, 133–135, 138

Vehicle-miles traveled, 3, 5, 8, 15, 56

air pollution, 117, 119

data needs, 100

fatalities, 7, 84

by functional class, 56

safety, general, 8

urban areas, 5, 54, 56

Vehicles, 3, 14

age of vehicle, 20, 33

data needs, 3, 32–33, 107

disposal of, 10, 133–135, 138

manufacturing phase pollution, 10, 117, 127–131, 137–138

number of, 1–2

transit, 3, 16, 29, 31

see also Alternative vehicles; Bicycles; Motor vehicles; Personal-use vehicles; Rented vehicles; Vessels

Venezuela, 49, 110

Vessels

accidents, 84, 85, 86

recreational boating, 84, 85, 86

barges, 26, 27, 133

data needs, 33

dismantling, 134–135

ferries, 5, 27, 29, 59, 62

inland water, 26, 27, 133

marine vessels,

containerships, 2, 26, 27, 28

cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

dismantling, 134–135

tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

number and use, 2, 16, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29

pollution from, 125

recreational boats, 2, 16, 25, 84, 85, 86, 129, 131

shipbuilding, 28, 130

Virginia

Dulles Airport, 126–127

Hampton Roads, 2, 26

high-speed rail, 24

Norfolk, 51, 52, 60

Volatile organic compounds, 9, 104, 117, 118, 119, 123, 128, 130, 132

W

Walking as a form of transportation, 4, 7, 37, 84, 90, 91, 93–95

see also Pedestrians

Warehousing, 6, 68

employment, 6, 73–74

Washington, DC, see District of Columbia

Washington State

motor vehicle service stations, pollutants, 131–132

rail transportation, information technology, 32

Port of Seattle, 2, 26, 51, 52

Port of Tacoma, 2, 26, 51, 52

Waste materials, 125–127

dredge sediment, 9, 125, 137

nonhazardous industrial wastes, 9, 130

recycling, 133–135, 138

vehicle cleaning, 132

vehicle disposal, 133–135, 138

vehicle manufacturing, 127, 129

see also Solid waste

Waterborne transportation, 59

accidents, 84, 85, 86

barges, 26, 27, 133

cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

data needs, 10–11, 33, 100

dredging, 9, 125, 137

eastern U.S., 4, 50, 51

employment, 73, 75

energy use, 105

extent and use, 16, 25–27, 59

fatalities, 85, 86

ferries, 5, 27, 29, 59, 62

freight, 2, 4, 25–27, 44, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59

barges, 26, 27, 133

international, 2, 4, 25, 28, 50–51

tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

ton-miles, 3–4, 16, 44, 46

government revenues/spending, 7, 78–79

hazardous materials spills, 124

injuries, 85

international freight, 2, 4, 25, 28, 50–51

passenger transportation, 16, 25, 26–27

cruise ships, 16, 25, 26

ferries, 5, 27, 29, 59, 62

recreational boats, 2, 16, 25, 84, 85, 86, 129, 131

safety, 85, 100

tankers, 26, 27, 28, 43

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

see also Inland waterways; Maritime transportation; Ports; Recreational boating; Vessels; specific rivers and waterways

Water pollution, 125

data needs, 116–117

deicing/anti-icing agents, 127

dredging, 9, 125, 137

hazardous materials spills, 124

maritime, 125

oil spills, 9, 104, 123–124

pipeline spills, 124, 137

storage tanks, leakage, 10, 127, 132–133

Weather conditions, 100, 103

accidents, 8

air transportation, deicing, 127

alternative fuel vehicles, 113

road transportation, 8

Western U.S.

consumer spending, 71

oceanborne international trade, 4, 50–51

see also Midwest U.S.; Pacific states; specific states

White persons, local travel, 39

Wholesale/retail trade, 44, 45, 68

Wildlife, 9, 125

data needs, 116–117

Wisconsin, 60

Women, see Gender factors

Wood products, see Lumber and wood products

Workforce, see Employment

World Health Organization, 98–99

World Wide Web, see Internet

Wyoming, 62