Index

Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Accessibility to transportation. See Mobility and accessibility

Accidents. See also Crashes; Fatalities; Injuries

air carriers, 66-67

air taxis, 44, 66-67

alcohol-related, 72 (See also Alcohol-related accidents)

commercial aviation, 4, 66-67, 68

commuter air carriers, 44, 66-67

Firestone tires, 58

general aviation, 4, 41, 42, 44, 45, 66-67, 68

involving tires, 58

overview, 39-40

pipelines, 42, 44, 75-76

railroads, 4, 41, 42, 44, 74, 79, 80

recreational boating, 41, 42, 44, 70, 71, 72-73

weather conditions and, 68

Acetaldehyde, 190, 192

Aerospace industry, 6, 232-233

Africa, oil reserves, 227

Agricultural commodities, U.S. trade, 155

Agriculture industry, in-house transportation, 143

AHS. See American Housing Survey

Air bags, 55

Air couriers, 117-120

Air freight, 5, 84

domestic freight shipments, 115-120

international trade shipments, 155-158

Air interdiction of drugs, 216, 234

Air pollutant emissions, 7, 186-192

carbon emissions, 7, 169, 174, 184-187, 201

emissions data, 243

greenhouse gas, 7, 169, 182, 184-185, 243

lead emissions, 186, 187

nitrogen oxide emissions, 7, 169, 186, 187

toxic, 190-192

Air quality monitoring, data, 243

Air taxis, accidents and fatalities, 44, 66-67

Air traffic control

cyber-terrorism, 223

and flight delays, 112

Air traffic hubs, 92-93, 113, 114

Air transportation

access to, 96, 97

accidents and fatalities, 4, 41, 42, 44, 45, 66-67, 68

air traffic control, 112, 223

air traffic hubs, 92-93, 113, 114

airfares, 85

airline data, 241-242

airport runways, 31, 68, 170, 204

congestion causes, 84

deregulation, 17

disposable income and air travel, 85

employment, 139

energy intensity, 178, 179

enplanements at airports, 92-93

extent, 3, 14, 15

flight delays and cancellations, 5, 84, 112-114

flights abroad, 225

freight shipments, 5, 84, 115-120, 155-158

fuel costs, 147, 148

impact of higher fuel prices, 147

labor productivity, 144, 145

NAFTA shipments, 161

on-time reporting, 113

percentage of GDP, 140, 141, 142-143

percentage of transportation energy use, 172

risk exposure, 43

terrorism, 215, 222, 223, 224-226

top 10 airports for percentage of flights delayed, canceled, and diverted, 114

Aircraft

equipment and parts, 161

manufacturing, 215, 232-233

number operated, 3

Aircraft fuel, lead emissions, 186

Aircraft noise, 7, 169, 193-194

Airfares, 85

Airlifts, military. See Military forces and materiel

Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, 17

Airlines. See Air transportation

Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990, 193

Airport runways

condition and inspection, 31

incursions involving GA aircraft, 68

wetland impacts, 170, 204

Airports

enplanements at, 92-93

top 10 for percentage of flights delayed, canceled, and diverted, 114

Alabama, vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Alaska

crude oil shipments, 84

oil reserves, 227

Alcohol-related accidents

motor vehicles, 40, 52-54

bicycle fatalities, 61

economic cost, 48

involving pedestrians, 63, 65

recreational boating, 72

Alcohols and ethers. See Replacement fuels

Alien smuggling and interdiction, 8, 216, 236-237

Alternative and replacement fuels, 169, 174-175

American Housing Survey (AHS), 99

American Public Transportation Association, transit ridership growth, 102

American Travel Survey, 241, 242

Ammonia and ammonium sulfate, 186, 187

Amtrak, 96, 97, 178

Animals, collisions with bicycles, 62

Appalachian Region, communities beyond reasonable access distance, 96-97

Aquarium fish and plants, 210-211

Arizona, NAFTA border crossings, 162

Armed forces. See Military forces and materiel

Asia

imports from, 121

trade partners, 155, 158

Atlanta, Georgia, air traffic hub, 92, 93

Australia, oil production, 228

Auto repair, employment, 139

Automated guideways, 25

Automobile manufacturing

NAFTA and, 161

reporting defects, 58

Automotive dealers and service station industry, employment, 139

Aviation industry. See Air transportation

Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 225

B

BAC. See Blood alcohol concentration

Baltimore, Maryland, enplanements, 92

Barges, 27

incidents and fatalities, 70, 71

Batteries, 7, 170, 201, 202

BEA. See Bureau of Economic Analysis

Benzene, 190, 191, 192

Bicycles

crashes, injuries, and fatalities, 4, 41, 42, 46, 61-62

risk exposure, 61-62

Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), 52-53

Boating. See Recreational boating

Borders, U.S.

border crossings, 91, 161, 162

interdiction of drugs and aliens, 8, 216, 234-235

international travel and, 89-90

Brazil, oil production, 228

Bridges

conditions, 33-35

terrorist and criminal attacks, 223

Bridgestone/Firestone Corporation, 58

BTS. See Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Bulk commodity shipments, 125

Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)

in-house transportation research, 135, 142

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 147, 246

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS)

about, 241

airline delay information, 112

American Travel Survey, 241, 242

commercial freight estimates, 123-124

five-year plan, 241, 242

fuel price increase analysis, 176

impact of high gas prices on industries, 147

in-house transportation research, 135, 142

Intermodal Transportation Database, 9, 245

Livability Indicators, 205

National Transportation Atlas Database program, 245

National Transportation Library, 245

Office of Airline Information, 241

Omnibus Survey, 9, 62, 65, 242

transportation occupations in nontransportation industries estimates, 139

Bus companies, 18-19

labor productivity, 144, 145

Bus drivers, fatalities, 79, 80

Buses, 25

access to, 96, 97, 104

data, 242

energy use per pmt, 178, 179

fares, 86

fatalities, 41, 42, 79, 80

hijacking, 223

intercity, 96, 97, 178

ridership, 102

terrorist and criminal attacks, 222

1,3-butadiene, 190, 192

C

CAFE. See Corporate Average Fuel Economy

California

air traffic hubs, 92, 93

border crossings, 91, 162

enplanements, 92

ferry service, 95

international shipments, 156

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

oil reserves, 227

ports, 18, 29, 30, 121, 156

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Canada

oil reserves, 227

supplier of U.S. oil, 156, 228

trade partner, 136, 155, 156, 158 (See also North American Free Trade Agreement)

travel to and from, 89-90

U.S.-Canada border, 91

Carbon emissions, 7, 169, 174, 184-187, 201

Cargo handling services. See Ports and cargo handling services

Caribbean, USCG's counter-narcotics initiative, 234

Cars. See Passenger cars

Caspian Sea, oil reserves, 227

Census Bureau, freight and passenger surveys, 242

Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting, 185, 243

CFS. See Commodity Flow Survey

Charlotte, North Carolina, commercial airline hub, 92, 93

Chicago, Illinois

air traffic hub, 92, 93

international shipments, 156

introduction of harmful species, 210

Child restraint systems, 55-56

Children, fatalities, 55-56

China

container traffic, 121

migrants, 236

oil reserves, 227

Cincinnati, Ohio, enplanements, 92

Civil aviation. See Air transportation

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF), 217-218

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 169, 173, 174, 190

Clean Water Act, 203

Cleveland, Ohio, enplanements, 92

Coal shipments, 125, 126, 131, 159

Cocaine, amount seized, 8, 216, 234, 235

Code-sharing" agreements, 17

Collisions. See Crashes

Columbia, oil production, 228

Commercial airline hubs, 92-93, 113, 114

Commercial aviation. See Air transportation

Commercial fishing industry, fatality estimates, 4, 70, 71

Commercial vessels. See also Cruise line industry

design changes, 29

incidents, injuries, and fatalities, 4, 41, 42, 44, 70-71

oil spills, 169, 195-196

Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), 117, 123, 127, 129, 131, 241, 242-243

Commodity shipments, 125-126

by air carriers, 117-120

among NAFTA partners, 161

by trucking industry, 84, 131-132

Communications systems, cyber-terrorism, 223

Commuter air carriers, accidents and fatalities, 44, 66-67

Commuter rail, 25, 26, 102

Commuting to work, 83, 85, 95, 98-100

trip chaining, 101

welfare recipients, 103-104

Computers and ADP equipment

shipments, 125, 126

U.S. trade, 155

Congo, oil reserves, 227

Construction industry, in-house transportation, 143

Consumer expenditure trends, 149

Consumer price indexes

for purchased and private transportation services, 146

for selected items, 146

Consumer prices for transportation, 146

Container trade, 29, 84, 121-122

Contaminated sediment, 7, 170, 197

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), 180

Countries of origin of international visitors, 90

Countries visited by U.S. residents, 90

CRAF. See Civil Reserve Air Fleet

Crashes. See also Accidents; Fatalities; Injuries; Occupant crash protection

alcohol-related, 40, 48, 52-54, 61, 63, 65

characteristics, 46-47

disability caused by, 109

driver-related factors, 59

economic costs of, 48-49

emergency response time, 50-51

fatal crashes by speed limit and type of road, 50

frontal, 47

involvement by driver age, 52, 53

large trucks, 48, 52-54

linked to tires, 58

lives claimed, 39-42, 79

lives saved by safety belt use, 55

multiple-vehicle, 46

rollovers, 4, 47

run-off-the-road crashes, 46

on rural and urban roads, 50-51

side-impact, 47

single-vehicle, 46

two-vehicle, 46, 59

weather conditions, 50

Crude oil. See Oil; Petroleum

Cruise line industry

consolidations, 18

cruiseship vacations, 94

growth rate, 94

vulnerability to terrorist attacks, 222

Cuba, migrants, 236

Cyber-terrorism, 220-221, 223

D

Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, air traffic hub, 92, 93

Data. See Transportation statistics; specific topics of interest

Day-night noise level (DNL), 193

Deaths. See Fatalities

Defense mobilization. See Military forces and materiel

Demand responsive transportation, 108

Deregulation, 17

Detroit, Michigan, port of, 161

DGPS. See Maritime Differential GPS

Disabilities and health factors affecting travel, 108-109

DNL. See Day-night noise level

DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense

Dominican Republic, migrants, 236

Dredged material, 7, 170, 197-198

used to nourish wetlands, 170, 204

Drinking water, MTBE from underground storage tanks, 199

Driving while intoxicated. See Alcohol-related accidents

Drownings, 72, 73

Drug smuggling and interdiction, 8, 216, 234-235

Drug use

estimated number of users, 234

highway crashes and, 40

Drunk driving. See Alcohol-related accidents

Dry bulk vessels, 27

Dry cargo barges, 27

E

Economic growth

consumer prices for transportation, 146

employment, 139

for-hire transportation, 6, 140-141

fuel tax revenue, 135, 151-152

gasoline prices and, 6, 147-148

highway capital stocks, 6, 153-154

household spending on transportation, 6, 135-136, 149-150

in-house transportation, 6, 18, 140, 142-143

international merchandise trade, 6, 155-158

labor productivity, 6, 144-145

NAFTA trade, 161-165

overview, 135-136

transportation financing, 246

transportation-related final demand, 6, 137-138

U.S. waterborne trade, 159-160

Ecuador, migrants, 236

EDSs. See Explosive Detection Systems

EIA. See Energy Information Administration

Electronic components and parts

NAFTA and, 161

shipments, 117, 125, 131

Electronic terrorism, 220-221, 223

Electronic toll collection (ETC) technologies, 20

Emergency response to crashes, 50-51

Emissions data, 243. See also specific emissions

Employment

transportation-related, by industry, 139

welfare-to-work issues involving transportation, 103-104

Energy and the environment

air pollutants, 7, 186-192

aircraft noise, 7, 193-194

alternative and replacement fuels, 174-175

carbon emissions, 7, 169, 174, 184-187, 201

data, 243

dredged material, 7, 197-198

energy intensity of travel and transportation, 178-179

energy use, 7, 169, 171-172

environmental indicators, 182-183

environmental justice, 170, 208-209

freight transportation and, 178-179

fuel efficiency, 7, 178, 180-181

harmful species introduction, 170, 210-212

key air pollutants, 186-189

light truck fuel efficiency, 180-181

mobile source air toxics, 190-192

nonattainment areas and, 186, 189

oil spills, 7, 169, 195-196

passenger car fuel efficiency, 180-181

passenger travel and, 178-179

petroleum consumption, 173

toxic air pollutant emissions, 190-192

transportation wastes, 201-202

underground storage tank leaks, 170, 199-200

urban sprawl, 170, 205-207

wetlands, 170, 203-204

world crude oil prices, 176-177

Energy Information Administration (EIA), 182, 185, 227, 228, 243

Energy use, 171-172

Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS), 244

Enplanements at major U.S. airports, 92-93

Environmental issues. See Energy and the environment; specific issues and types of pollutants

Environmental justice, 170, 208-209

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

ETC technologies. See Electronic toll collection

Ethylbenzene, 190, 192

ETMS. See Enhanced Traffic Management System

Explosive Detection Systems (EDSs), 225

Exxon Valdez spill, 195

F

FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration

Falling overboard, 70

FARS. See Fatality Analysis Reporting System

Fast ferries, 95

Fatalities

air bags and, 55

alcohol-related, 4, 52-54, 63

bicyclists, 4, 61

children less than 5 years of age, 55-56

commercial aviation, 4, 66-67, 68

exposure rates, 43-45

factors explaining decrease in, 43, 52-53

general aviation, 4, 41, 42, 44, 45, 68-69

hazardous materials transportation, 77-78

large trucks, 59

leading causes of death in people of all ages, 39

maritime, 4, 70-71

by modes of transportation, 41-42, 44, 45, 79-80 (See also Pedestrians; specific modes of transportation)

occupational, 4, 71, 79-80

pedestrian, 4, 41, 42, 46, 63-65

pipelines, 42, 44, 75-76

recreational boating, 41, 42, 44, 70, 71, 72-73

by state, 53, 54

from terrorist and criminal attacks, 215, 220, 222, 224

transportation workers, 4, 71, 79-80

Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), 46

Fatigue, crashes and incidents and, 40, 46

FBI. See Federal Bureau of Investigation

Federal Aid Highways system, 204

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

airline delay information, 112

flight mile estimates, 66

GA flight hour estimates, 68

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, 31

response to hijackings, 224

runway inspections, 31

Safer Skies" program, 66, 69

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), domestic terrorist incidents, 220

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)

ferry survey, 95

freight and passenger surveys, 242

ITS Joint Program Office, 20

wetlands data, 204

Federal highway construction funds, BAC laws and, 53

Federal Maritime Commission, 18

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 59

Federal National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, 208

Federal Transit Administration, 104

assessment of transit vehicles condition, 25-26

National Transit Database, 241

Ferries, 25, 95

FHWA. See Federal Highway Administration

Financing the transportation system, 246

Fisheries industry, in-house transportation, 143

Fishing vessels, incidents and fatalities, 4, 70, 71

Flammable liquids transportation, 127

Flight delays and cancellations, 84, 112-114

Florida

air traffic hubs, 92, 93

vehicle-miles of travel, 87.

For-hire transportation, 6, 18, 140-141

fuel costs, 147, 148

labor productivity, 144

percent of GDP, 142

Foreign air carriers, flight security procedures, 225

Former Soviet Union, oil production, 228

Free Trade Agreement, 136, 161

Freight ships, incidents and fatalities, 70, 71

Freight transportation, 5, 123-124

data, 84, 242-243

domestic shipments, 84, 115-120

energy intensity, 178-179

intermodal, 124, 129-130

international shipments, 155-158

Fuel consumption, 6, 7, 175

alternative and replacement fuels, 169, 174

per household, 151

price versus consumption, 147

Fuel economy and efficiency, 7, 151, 178, 180-181

Fuel oils. See Oil

Fuel prices

gasoline, 6, 85, 147-148

increases in world crude oil prices, 176-177

price versus consumption, 147

Fuel tax revenue, 135, 151-152

G

Gasoline

blending agents, 173

prices, 6, 85, 147-148

reformulated, 174

shipments, 125, 126

toxic emissions performance standards, 190

GDP. See Gross Domestic Product

General aviation. See also Air transportation

accidents and fatalities, 4, 41, 42, 44, 45, 68-69

General Aviation Revitalization Act of 1994, 232

Geographic information systems, 245

Georgia, vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Germany

trade partner, 156

visitors from, 90

Gliders. See General aviation

Global Positioning System (GPS), 20

cyber-terrorism, 223

GPS. See Global Positioning System

Great Lakes, introduction of harmful species, 210

Greenhouse gas emissions, 7, 169, 182, 184-185, 243

Greenland shelf, oil reserves, 227

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

for-hire transportation, 140-141

purchases of transportation-related goods and services, 115-116, 137-138

by selected industries, 142

transportation GDP by mode, 142

Transportation Satellite Accounts estimates and, 246

Groundwater contamination from underground storage tanks, 170, 199-200

Guam

introduction of harmful species, 210

migrant stopping point, 236

Gulf of Mexico

oil reserves, 227

ports, 156

H

Haiti, migrants, 236

Harmful species, introduction, 170, 210-212

Hawaii, vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Hazardous air pollutants. See Air pollutant emissions; specific pollutants

Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS), 77, 244

Hazardous materials transportation

amount of, 84

classes of hazardous materials shipped, 127-128

data, 244

incidents, injuries, and fatalities, 77-78

by mode, 128

oil spills, 7, 169, 195-196

shipments by class and miles shipped, 78

shipments by class and tonnage, 127

Head of household, age and impact on transportation spending, 150

Health factors affecting travel, 108-109

Heavy rail. See Railroad industry

Helicopters. See General aviation

High-speed rail (HSR) corridors, 3, 24

Highway capital stocks, 6, 153-154

Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), 87, 241, 244

Highway-rail grade crossings, 20, 24, 74

Highway Trust Fund (HTF), 151

Highways and roads

congestion, 13, 83-84, 101, 110-111, 205

crashes (See Crashes)

extent, 3, 14-15

fatalities (See Fatalities)

highway conditions, 32, 50

injuries (See Injuries)

military use of highway systems, 218

passenger travel, 83, 85-86

public roads, 22, 32

risk exposure, 43

terrorist and criminal attacks, 222

HMIS. See Hazardous Materials Information System

Households

fuel taxes paid, 151-152

spending on transportation, 6, 85, 135-136, 149-150, 176, 177

vehicles per household, 105-106

without vehicles, 103, 107

HPMS. See Highway Performance Monitoring System

HSR. See High-speed rail corridors

HTF. See Highway Trust Fund

Hybrid engines, 181

Hydrilla, 211

I

ICC. See Interstate Commerce Commission

Illinois

air traffic hub, 92, 93

international shipments, 156

introduction of harmful species, 210

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 89

Imports and exports, 6, 29, 155-158. See also specific commodities

In-house transportation, 6, 18, 140, 142-143

fuel costs, 147

Incidents. See Accidents; Crashes; specific modes of transportation

Inclined planes, 25

Indiana, NAFTA trade, 162, 165

Information technology (IT), 13, 20-21

transportation statistics and, 246

Infrastructure. See Transportation infrastructure

Injuries. See also Fatalities

by air bags, 55

bicyclists, 61-62

hazardous materials transportation, 77-78

maritime, 70

from motor vehicle collisions, 39-40

pedestrians, 63

recreational boating, 41, 42, 44, 70, 71, 72-73

from terrorist and criminal attacks, 215, 220, 222

Inland towing industry, incidents and fatalities, 70, 71

INS. See Immigration and Naturalization Service

Inspections

airport runways, 31

large trucks, 59-60

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 20

Intercity public services, 83, 85-86, 96-97. See also Buses; Railroad industry

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 185

Intermodal freight shipments, 124, 129-130

Intermodal Transportation Database (ITDB), 9, 245

International terrorism. See Terrorism

International trade. See also North American Free Trade Agreement

data, 245-246

merchandise, 6, 155-158

International travel to and from the United States, 83, 89-90

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 18

Interstate highways. See Highways and roads

Iowa, access to intercity public transportation, 96, 97

IPCC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Iraq, supplier of U.S. oil, 228

IT. See Information technology

ITDB. See Intermodal Transportation Database

ITS. See Intelligent transportation systems

J

Japan

merchant shipbuilding, 230

Tokyo subway terrorist attack, 220

trade partner, 136, 155, 156, 158

visitors from, 90

Job Access and Reverse Commute grant program, 104

Journey to work. See Commuting to work

K

Kansas, access to intercity public transportation, 97

Kansas City, enplanements, 92

Kyoto Protocol, 184-185

L

Labor force increase, 86

Labor productivity, transportation, 6, 144-145

Land trade, 161, 162

Large trucks

alcohol-related fatalities, 52

crashes and fatalities, 45, 52, 59-60

percent of transportation energy use, 171, 172

safety issues, 59-60

Las Vegas, Nevada, air traffic hub, 92, 93

Latin America, accidents involving tires, 58

Lead-acid batteries, disposal, 7, 170, 201, 202

Lead emissions, 186, 187

Licensed drivers

with disabilities, 108, 109

number of, 105, 106

Life jackets, 72

Light rail. See Railroad industry

Light trucks and vans (LTVs)

air bags, 55

alcohol-related fatalities, 52

crashes, 4, 46-47

fatalities, 41, 42, 45, 52

fuel efficiency, 180-181

number of, 23, 47

passenger-miles of travel, 5, 83, 85

percentage of transportation energy use, 171, 172

risk exposure, 43

tire recalls, 58

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Liner carriers, 17, 159

Livability Indicators, 205

Lockerbie, Scotland, 225

Los Angeles, California, air traffic hub, 92, 93

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, 208

LTVs. See Light trucks and vans

Lubricants, 201

M

Manufactured goods

high-value, U.S. trade, 155

miscellaneous, shipments, 117, 125, 131

Maritime Administration Security Program (MSP), 217

Maritime Differential GPS (DGPS), 20-21

Maritime drug and alien interdiction, 8, 216, 234-237

Maritime terrorist and criminal attacks, 222, 223

Maritime vessels. See Commercial vessels

Massachusetts

BAC laws, 53

Boston area study, 104

Medical costs of crashes, 48, 49

Merchant Marine Act of 1936, Ship Financing Program (Title XI), 230-231

Merchant Mariner Licensing and Documentation System (MMLD), 244

Merchant shipbuilding and repair, 8, 27, 215, 230-231

Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE), 170, 174-175, 190, 192, 199

Metropolitan areas. See also Urban areas

highway congestion, 101, 110-111

job decentralization, 104

Metropolitan Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Deployment Tracking Database, 244

Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), 20

Mexico

oil reserves, 227

supplier of U.S. oil, 228

trade partner, 136, 155, 156, 158 (See also North American Free Trade Agreement)

travel to and from, 89-90

U.S.-Mexico border, 91, 161-162

Michigan

border crossings, 91, 162

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

ports, 161

Middle East

accidents involving tires, 58

oil reserves, 227

Military aircraft manufacturing, 232, 233

Military forces and materiel

movement of, 217-219

reliance on ships and aircraft, 215

Mineral fuels. See Oil

Minivans. See Light trucks and vans

Mississippi, vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Mississippi Delta Region, communities beyond reasonable access distance, 96-97

MMLD. See Merchant Mariner Licensing and Documentation System

Mobile source air toxics (MSATs), 190-192

Mobility and accessibility

access difficulties cited, 103-104, 109

air carrier freight, 84, 117-120

airline delays, 5, 84, 112-114

border crossings, 91

classes of hazardous materials shipped, 127-128

commercial freight activity, 4, 83, 84, 123-124

commodity shipments by trucking industry, 131-132

commuting to work, 83, 85, 95, 98-100

container trade, 29, 84, 121-122

cruiseship vacations, 94

disabilities and health factors affecting travel, 108-109

domestic freight shipments, 84, 115-116

enplanements at major U.S. airports, 92-93

highway congestion, 101, 110-111

households without vehicles, 84, 107

intercity public service, 83, 85-86, 96-97

intermodal freight shipments, 129-130

international travel to and from the United States, 83, 89-90

major commodity shipments, 117-120, 125-126

metropolitan areas, 110-111

number of vehicles per household, 83, 105-106

overview, 5, 83-84

passenger ferries, 25, 95

passenger travel, 83, 85-86

reasonable access distance, 96

spatial mismatch, 103-104

transit ridership, 102

trip chaining, 101

vehicle-miles of travel, 5, 83, 87-88

welfare to work and, 103-104

Motor Carrier Act of 1980, 18

Motor carrier industry, 18-19, 242. See also Bus companies; Trucking industry

Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act, 59

Motor vehicle crashes. See Crashes

Motorboats. See Recreational boating

Motorcyclists

alcohol-related fatalities, 52

fatalities, 41, 42, 43, 45, 52

MPOs. See Metropolitan planning organizations

MSATs. See Mobile source air toxics

MSP. See Maritime Administration Security Program

MSW. See Municipal solid waste

MTBE. See Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether

Municipal solid waste (MSW), 201

N

NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement trade

Narcotics confiscation, 215, 234, 235

NASS GES. See National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System

National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES), 46

National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF), 217

National Emission Trends database, 186

National Environmental Policy Act, 203

National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D), 108

National Highway Planning network, 245

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

cost of crashes, 48-49

crash statistics, 46

tire safety standards, 58

National Household Travel Survey, 242-243

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, 31

National security

aircraft manufacturing and, 215, 232-233

alien smuggling and interdiction, 8, 216, 236-237

dependence on imported oil, 8, 215, 228-229

drug smuggling and interdiction, 8, 216, 234-235

international terrorism and civil aviation, 215, 224-226

merchant shipbuilding/repair and, 8, 215, 230-231

movement of military forces and materiel, 215, 217-219

overview, 7, 215-216

terrorist threats to transportation, 8, 215, 220-221

transportation-related sectors of the economy and, 215

vulnerability of infrastructure to terrorism, 215, 222-223

world petroleum reserves and, 215, 227

National Shipbuilding and Conversion Act of 1993, 231

National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 245

National Transit Database, 241

National Transportation Atlas Database program, 245

National Transportation Library (NTL), 245

Nationwide Airport Noise Impact Model, 194

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS), 61, 63, 99, 101

NDRF. See National Defense Reserve Fleet

Nebraska, access to intercity public transportation, 97

Nevada, air traffic hub, 92, 93

New Hampshire, safety belt use laws, 55

New Jersey, ferry service, 95

New Mexico

Carlsbad pipeline rupture, 75-76

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

New Orleans, Louisiana, enplanements, 92

New York

border crossings, 91, 162

enplanements, 92

environmental justice case, 208

ferry service, 95

introduction of harmful species, 210

JFK airport, international shipments, 156

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

ports, 161

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

NHIS-D. See National Health Interview Survey on Disability

NHTSA. See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Niger, oil reserves, 227

Nitrogen oxide emissions, 7, 169, 186, 187

Noise, aircraft, 7, 193-194

Noise Compatibility Program, 193

Nonattainment areas, 186, 189

Nonpetroleum sources of energy, 173

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade, 136, 161-165

North and South Dakota, access to intercity public transportation, 96, 97

North Carolina

environmental justice case, 208

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

North Sea area, oil production, 228

NPIAS. See National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems

NPTS. See Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey

NTL. See National Transportation Library

Nuclear Regulatory Commission, hazardous materials transportation safety, 77

O

OAI. See Office of Airline Information

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 123

Occupant crash protection, 55-57

air bags, 55

failure to use, 40

Ocean Shipping Reform Act (OSRA), 18

Office of Airline Information (OAI), Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 241

Office of Intelligence and Security (OIS) Survey of DOT Operating Administrations, 244

Office of the Inspector General (OIG), hazardous materials data, 244

Office of Tourism Industries, 89

Ohio

enplanements, 92

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

OIG. See Office of the Inspector General

Oil

Alaskan crude oil shipments, 84

consumption, 8, 215, 228-229

dependence on imports, 8, 176, 215, 228-229

non-OPEC production, 228

shipments, 125, 126

U.S. trade, 155

used, 201

world crude oil prices, 176-177

Oil reserves, U.S., 227

Oil spills, 7, 169, 195-196

OIS. See Office of Intelligence and Security

Oklahoma

Oklahoma City bombing, 220

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Omnibus Survey, 9, 62, 65, 242

OPEC. See Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, 217

Operation New Frontier, 234

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 8, 176, 228

Orlando, Florida, air traffic hub, 92, 93

OSRA. See Ocean Shipping Reform Act

Oxygenates, 174

P

Pan Am Flight 103, 225

Parcel post, 117-120

Parking services, employment, 139

Passenger cars. See also Crashes

air bags, 55

alcohol-related fatalities, 52

fatalities, 39-40, 41, 42, 45, 52

fuel efficiency, 180-181

number of, 47

percentage of transportation energy use, 171, 172

price increases for private transportation, 146

risk exposure, 43

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Passenger data, 242-243

Passenger-miles of travel (pmt), 5, 83, 85-86, 178

Passenger vessels, incidents and fatalities, 70, 71

Pedestrians

alcohol use and crashes, 48, 63, 65

collisions with bicycles, 62

fatalities, 4, 41, 42, 46, 63-65

risk exposure, 43, 63

Pennsylvania, NAFTA trade, 162, 165

People's Republic of China. See China

Performance measures, 9, 243-244

Persian Gulf. See Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm

Personal flotation devices (PFDs), 72

Personal watercraft accidents, 72

Petroleum

combustion and greenhouse gas emissions, 184

major suppliers of U.S. petroleum products, 155-156, 229

NAFTA and, 161

national security and world petroleum reserves, 227

production and consumption, 169, 173, 228

shipments, 159

transportation's reliance on, 227

underground storage tanks, 170, 199-200

U.S. trade, 155

PFDs. See Personal flotation devices

Pickup trucks. See Light trucks and vans

Pilots

fatalities, 79, 80

pilot error, 68

Pipelines

accidents and fatalities, 42, 44, 75-76

bombings, 223

cyber-terrorism, 223

extent, 3, 15, 16

fuel costs, 148

impact of high gas prices, 147

labor productivity, 144, 145

oil spills, 169, 195, 196

percentage of transportation energy use, 172

pipeline age, 75-76

pmt. See Passenger-miles of travel

Population

increase, 85

vehicle-miles of travel and, 87-88

Portland, Oregon, enplanements, 92

Ports and cargo handling services, 18, 29-30, 121

dredging, 197-198

harmful species introduction, 211

international merchandise trade, 155-158

NAFTA and, 161

North American cruise passenger ports, 94

Positive train control (PTC) systems, 21

PRC. See China

President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, 223

Private carriers. See In-house transportation

Private transportation services

consumer price indexes, 146

percentage of household transportation expenses, 149, 151-152

Productivity loss from crashes, 48, 49

Property loss from crashes, 48, 49

PTC. See Positive train control systems

Public transportation. See Transit

Purchased transportation services

consumer price indexes, 146

percentage of household transportation expenses, 149

R

Railroad industry

commodity shipments, 131, 132

commuter rail, 25, 26, 102

energy intensity, 178, 179

freight, 17, 178, 179

fuel costs, 147, 148

heavy rail, 102

impact of higher fuel prices, 147

intercity rail, 96, 97, 178

labor productivity, 135, 144, 145

light rail ridership, 102

military use, 218

NAFTA shipments, 161

transit, 25-26, 85, 96-97, 102

worker fatalities, 79, 80

Railroads and railways

access to, 96, 97

accidents and fatalities, 4, 41, 42, 44, 74, 79, 80

commuter rail, 25, 26, 102

extent, 3, 15

passenger travel, 85-86, 96-97, 102

positive train control systems, 21

terrorist and criminal attacks, 222-223

trespassing and railroad fatalities, 74

urban transit, 25-26

Ready Reserve Force (RRF) ships, 217

Reasonable access distance, 96

Reckless operation of vehicles, highway crashes and, 40

Recovered batteries and tires, 7, 170, 201

Recreational aircraft. See General aviation

Recreational boating

accidents, injuries, and fatalities, 41, 42, 44, 70, 71, 72-73

Reformulated gasoline (RFG), 174

Replacement fuels, 174-175

Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), hazardous materials data, 244

Reverse Commute programs, 104

RFG. See Reformulated gasoline

Rollovers, vehicle, 4, 47

RRF. See Ready Reserve Force ships

RSPA. See Research and Special Programs Administration

Rumble strips, 46

Run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes, 46

Rural areas

access to intercity public transportation, 96-97

bridge conditions, 33, 35

bus stop elimination, 19

highway crashes, 50-51

household transportation spending, 149-150

roads and highways, 22, 32

S

Safety belts and safety belt laws, 55-57

Safety Data Action Plan, 243, 244

San Diego, California, enplanements, 92

San Francisco, California

air traffic hub, 92, 93

ferry service, 95

international shipments, 156

Saudi Arabia

Explorer tire replacements, 58

supplier of U.S. oil, 156, 228

Sealifts, military. See Military forces and materiel

Sediment, contaminated, 7, 170, 197

Senior citizens, transportation spending, 150

Service station industry, employment, 139

Ship Financing Program (Title XI) of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, 230-231

Shipbuilding. See Merchant shipbuilding and repair

Shipping industry, 17-18. See also Commodity shipments

improving usage of vessels, 159

Ships

design changes, 29

incidents involving commercial vessels, 70-71

number in NDRF, 217

U.S.-flagged, 3, 27-28, 217

Shoulder rumble strips, 46

Side-impact crashes, 47

South Carolina, pipeline spill, 195

South Korea, merchant shipbuilding, 230

Spatial mismatch, 103-104

Speed limits

55 mph limit and crashes, 50

speed-related crashes, 48

Sport utility vehicles (SUVs). See Light trucks and vans

Sprawl, impacts, 170, 205-207

Staggers Act of 1980, 17

STRAHNET. See Strategic Highway Network

Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET), 218, 219

Styrene, 190, 192

Subways

extent, 15

terrorist attacks, 220

Superfund sites, environmental justice case, 209

SUVs. See Light trucks and vans

T

Tank barges, 27

Tankers, 27

Taxicab drivers, fatalities, 79, 80

TEA-21. See Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

Telecommunications equipment, NAFTA and, 161

Terrorism

bombings and arson attacks, 220, 223

civil aviation and, 215, 222, 223, 224-226

fatalities, 215, 220, 222, 224

terrorist threats to transportation, 8, 215, 220-221

vulnerability of infrastructure to, 215, 222-223

Texas

air traffic hubs, 92, 93

border crossings, 91, 161, 162

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

oil reserves, 227

ports, 156, 161, 162

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), congestion study, 110-111

Tires

disposed, 7, 170, 201, 202

recalls, 4, 58

Tokyo, Japan, subway terrorist attack, 220

Toluene, 190, 192

Tourists and tourism, 83, 89-90

Towboats and tugboats, incidents and fatalities, 70, 71

Toxic air pollutant emissions, 190-192

Trade flows by truck, 161-162, 164, 165

Trade imbalance, increased shipping costs and, 84

Trade partners

by air, 158

by all modes, 155

NAFTA trade, 161-165

by value and weight, 158

world maritime arena, 159

Traffic signal control, 20

Trains. See Railroad industry; Railroads and railways

Transit. See also Buses; Commuter rail; Ferries; Railroads and railways; Subways

disabled rider use, 108-109

environmental justice and, 170, 208

extent, 15

fatalities, 41, 42, 44

fuel costs, 147, 148

impact of higher fuel prices, 147

ridership, 102, 108-109

share of commuters, 98, 99

urban, 25-26, 85-86, 96-97

welfare recipients and, 103-104

Transit Zone, 234

Transportation, public. See Transit

Transportation costs, per dollar of output by major industry, 143

Transportation equipment

disposed, 243

manufacturing, 139

U.S. export, 155

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century(TEA-21), 19, 104, 161-162, 245, 246

Transportation indicators, 9, 245

Transportation industry. See also For-hire transportation; In-house transportation; specific industries by mode

GDP growth, 6, 137-138

greenhouse gas emissions, 7, 169, 184-185

modal share of air pollutants, 188

restructuring and consolidation of, 17-19

Transportation infrastructure, 13

demand placed by foreign nationals, 89

loss of wetlands, 170, 203

vulnerability to terrorism, 215, 222-223

Transportation Infrastructure Capital Stock Account, 153

Transportation planning, environmental justice case, 209

Transportation prices, 146

Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation (TREAD) Act, 58

Transportation Research Board, sprawl studies, 205

Transportation safety, 3, 39-40

Transportation Satellite Accounts, 147, 246

Transportation statistics. See also specific databases by name or agency/department

airline data, 241-242

compiling, storing, and disseminating data, 244-246

data collection, 9, 241-243

data gaps, 243

data quality, 243-244

database audits, 244

economics and the transportation system, 246

energy and environmental data, 243

freight and passenger data, 242-243

geographic information systems, 245

hazardous materials data, 244

information technology and, 246

international trade data, 245-246

motor carrier data, 242

National Transportation Library, 245

overview, 9, 241, 247

performance measures, 9, 243-244

Safety Data Action Plan, 243, 244

transportation indicators, 9, 245

transportation system data, 242

transportation workers, 246

Transportation system

condition, 3 (See also specific industries)

data, 242

economics and, 246

extent, 3, 13, 14-15 (See also specific components and industries)

financing, 246

terrorist threats to, 8, 215, 220-221

Transportation wastes, 201-202

Transportation workers, 246

occupational fatalities, 4, 71, 79-80

occupations in nontransportation industries, 139

Travel

disabilities and health factors affecting, 108-109

energy intensity of, 178-179

international travel to and from the United States, 89-90

passenger, 83, 85-86

to work (See Commuting to work)

Travel spending, 85, 89

TREAD. See Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act

Trip chaining, 101

Trolley buses, 25

Truck drivers, fatalities, 79, 80

Trucking industry, 18-19. See also For-hire transportation; In-house transportation

commodity shipments, 84, 131-132

data, 242

employment, 139

energy use, 178

freight movement, 84, 115-116, 124

fuel costs, 148

impact of higher fuel prices, 147

international trade shipments, 156

labor productivity, 144, 145

NAFTA shipments, 161

percent of GDP, 142

TTI. See Texas Transportation Institute

Tugboats, incidents and fatalities, 70, 71

TWA Flight 800, 225

U

Underground Storage Tank Program, 199

Underground storage tank leaks, 170, 199-200

Unified Shipper Enforcement Data System, 244

United Kingdom

trade partner, 156

visitors from, 90

United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change, 184-185

University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, frontal collision study, 47

Urban areas

bicycle fatalities, 61

bridge conditions, 35

environmental justice case, 208

highway congestion, 101, 110-111

highway crashes, 50-51

household transportation spending, 149-150

job decentralization, 104

roads and highways, 22, 32

wetland losses, 170, 203

Urban sprawl, 170, 205-207

Urban transit, 25-26, 85-86, 96-97. See also specific modes

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, dredging operations, 7, 197-198

U.S. borders. See Borders, U.S.

U.S. Census Bureau, international trade data, 156

U.S. Coast Guard (USCG)

drug and alien interdiction, 8, 216, 234-235, 236-237

Maritime Differential GPS, 20-21

oil spill response, 195

U.S. Conference of Mayors, survey of municipal officials, 103

U.S. Customs Service, air interdiction of drugs, 234

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)

military aircraft manufacturing, 232, 233

movement of military forces and materiel, 217-219

reliance on commercial transportation, 217

reliance on ships and aircraft, 215

STRAHNET, 218, 219

U.S. Department of Energy

carbon emissions increase, 184

Energy Information Administration, 182, 185, 227, 228, 243

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics occupational injury data, 79-80

U.S. Department of Transportation. See also specific agencies

Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting, 185, 243

ITS Joint Program Office, 20

National Transportation Library (NTL), 245

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 182, 185, 190, 197, 199, 201, 243

U.S.-flagged vessels, 3, 27-28

military use, 217

U.S. Geological Survey, world oil resources estimates, 227

U.S. merchant marines, military use, 217

U.S. Navy Military Sealift Command, 217

USCG. See U.S. Coast Guard

Used motor oil, 201

V

Vehicle bombs, 220

Vehicle inspections, large trucks, 59-60

Vehicle-miles of travel, 5, 83, 87-88

Vehicle size and weight

crashes and, 47

fuel efficiency and, 180

Vehicle stocks, real growth in highway capital stocks compared to, 154

Vehicles. See also specific vehicles by type

alternative fueled, 175

household, 105-106, 149-150

households without, 107

parts and accessories NAFTA trade, 161

parts and accessories shipped, 125, 126

percentage of transportation energy use, 171

shipped, 131

trends, 23

U.S. trade, 155

U.S. vehicle fleet, 3, 23, 87

Venezuela

Explorer tire replacements, 58

supplier of U.S. oil, 228

Vessel design changes, 29

Visitors Arrivals Program (Form I-94), 89

vmt. See Vehicle-miles of travel

Volatile organic compounds, 169, 186, 187, 190, 192

W

Warehousing industry, 140, 141

employment, 139

Washington

border crossings, 162

NAFTA trade, 162, 165

Washington, DC

environmental justice case, 208

vehicle-miles of travel, 87

Waste dumps and transfer stations, environmental justice case, 208, 209

Water pollution

contaminated sediment, 170, 197

oil spills, 7, 169, 195-196

Water transportation, 17-18. See also Commercial vessels; Cruise line industry

congestion, 84

extent, 3, 16

fuel costs, 147, 148

impact of high gas prices, 147

labor productivity, 144

NAFTA shipments, 161

water ton-miles, 84, 115

waterborne trade, 5, 29-30, 84, 156, 159-160

worker fatalities, 79, 80

Weather conditions

crashes and, 50

general aviation accidents, 68

pedestrian fatalities and, 63

Welfare to work, mobility and accessibility and, 103-104

West Nile Virus, 210, 212

West Siberia, oil reserves, 227

Wetlands, 170, 203-204

Wheelchair access problems, 108

White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, 225

Work. See Employment

World container trade, 121

World crude oil prices, 176-177

World petroleum reserves, national security and, 227

Wyoming, vehicle-miles of travel, 87

X

Xylene, 190, 192

Z

Zebra mussel, 210