Index

Index

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Accessibility to transportation. See Mobility and accessibility

Accidents, 6. See also Crashes; Fatalities; Injuries

aviation, 24-25

data collection, 24-25

aerospace industry, 129-130

Age

as a factor in bicycle fatalities, 160-162

as a factor in household transportation spending, 200-202

Agricultural goods in international trade, 214-215

Air bags in automobile crashes, 152-154

Air freight, 215

capacity and bottleneck measures, 100

carriers, 91-92

domestic air cargo, 93-95

excess capacity, 94

increase in ton-miles, 66

intermodal freight capacity, 98-101

international trade, 215-217

nonscheduled service, 94

short-haul air shipments, 93-95

tonnage, 94

Air freight. See Freight

Air pollution, 8, 85-86, 241-243, 255-256

greenhouse gas emissions, 238-240

Air transportation, 36, 67

accidents, 24-25, 165-167

fatality rates, 143-145

air taxis, 165-167

aircraft, 36

bombs on commercial aircraft, 115

manufacturing, 6, 129-130

airfares, 68

airline data, 27-28

airplane manufacturing, 6

certificated air carriers, 36

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF), 122

commercial airline accidents, 7

data collection, 27-28

discount airlines, 75

energy use, 234-235

fatal accidents, 168

flight delays, 66, 87-90

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

general aviation

fatal accidents, 144-145, 168-169

growth, 75-77

hijackings, 114-115

information technology, 35

labor productivity, 195-196

on-time performance, 5, 66, 87-90

passenger screening, 109

revenues and expenditures, 203-209

security, 101-111

terrorism, 65, 89, 107-111, 114-115

transportation-related employment, 190-192

Airborne toxins, 112-113

Airlines. See Air transportation

Airports, 36

certificated, 35

commercial, 4, 7

enplanements, 75-77

flight delays at, 89

runway conditions, 54-55

runway expansion projects, 55

impacts on wetlands, 253

security, 115

Alcohol-related accidents and crashes

bicyclists, 161

motor vehicle crashes,149-151

pedestrian fatalities, 163-164

recreational boating accidents, 172-173

Alternate fuels, 229-231

Americans with Disabilities Act, 78-79

Amtrak, 5, 37, 111, 205

energy intensity, 234

Anthrax, 180

Arizona, 220

Automatic vehicle identification systems

Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate (HELP), 104

PrePass, 103-104

Automobiles

energy use, 234-235

fuel efficiency, 236-237

household transportation spending, 200-202

households without vehicles, 83-84

in U.S. vehicle fleet, 43

passenger cars, 36

vehicle-miles of travel, 69-70

Aviation. See Air transportation; Airports

Aviation and Transportation Security Act, 109

B

BAC. See Blood alcohol concentration

Baggage checks, 115

Baltimore, MD, 216

enplanements, 75

magnetic levitation rail project, 44-45

Baltimore-Washington International Airport, 75

Bicyclists, 160-162

accidents, 146, 160-162

alcohol use, 161

Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), 149-151

Bombs on commercial aircraft, 115

Border crossings, 74

illegal immigrant smuggling and interdiction, 125-126

in international trade, 214-215

North American Free Trade Agreement, 218-220

Bridges

conditions, 59-61

obsolete or deficient, 60

BTS. See Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), 3, 14, 17, 25-31

data collection, 27

data systems coordination, 25-26

geographic information systems, 26

National Transportation Library (NTL), 26

Office of Airline Information, 27

Office of Motor Carrier Information, 28

publications, 29

safety data, 26

Safety Data Initiative, 24

TranStats, 26

Bus transportation

access for persons with disabilities, 66, 78-79

energy use, 234-235

fares, 68

intercity bus fares, 68

ridership, 82

terrorist attacks, 110

vehicle-miles of travel, 69

C

CAFE. See Corporate Average Fuel Economy

California, 69, 220

border crossings, 74

magnetic levitation rail projects, 45

Port of Los Angeles, 96

Canada, 72-74, 134-135, 214-215, 218-220

NAFTA trade, 188

Capital improvements

highway capital stocks, 212-213

ports, 51-52

Car crashes. See Crashes

Carbon dioxide, 238-240

Carbon monoxide, 225, 231, 238-243

Cargo at U.S. ports, 51-52

Cars. See Automobiles

Cell phone use in accidents, 155-157

Census Bureau. See U.S. Census Bureau

Certificated air carriers, 36. See also Air transportation

energy use, 234-235

Certificated airports, 35

CFS. See Commodity Flow Survey

Channel depth, 96-97

Charleston, SC, port, 96

Chicago Transit Authority, 79

Child safety seats, 143, 153-154

China. See People's Republic of China (for mainland China) or Republic of China (for Taiwan)

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF), 122

Clean Air Act, 225-226, 255-256

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 230-231

Clean Water Act, 253-254

Collisions. See Accidents

Colombia, 73, 135, 215, 217

Cano Limon oil pipeline, 109

Combustible liquids. See Hazardous materials

Commercial aviation. See Air transportation

Commercial vehicle operations

and intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 103

hazardous materials transportation security, 119-120

Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate (HELP), 104

intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 103

PrePass system, 103-104

Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), 17, 21, 27

Commuter rail, 46-47

accident fatality rates, 144

ridership, 82

Commuting to work, 80-81

Compressed natural gas, 230-231

Congestion

impact on accessibility, 66

in metropolitan areas, 85-86

Consumerprices for transportation, 197

Container trade, 5, 96-97

containers on flatcars, 102

Contaminated sediments. See Dredging

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), 236-237

Corpus Christi, TX ports, 52, 101, 117

Costs and benefits of data collection, 17-18, 20-21

Crashes. See also Accidents; Fatalities; Injuries

airbags, 152-154

by mode, 141-142

cell phone use, 155-157

data collection, 24-25

fatality rates, 143

airlines, 165-167

highways, 24, 148

front impacts, 146-147

highway, 141-142

alcohol, 149-151

fatality rates, 143-144

run-off-the-road (ROR) accidents, 146

rural highways, 148

single-vehicles, 146-147

two-vehicles, 146-147

types, 146-147

urban highways, 148

large trucks, 144-145, 158-160

rollover, 146-147

safety belts, 7

side impact, 146-147

CRAF. See Civil Reserve Air Fleet

Cuban Adjustment Act, 125-126

D

Data analysis, 13

Data collection, 13-31

accident data, 24

airline data, 27-28

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 27

comparability, 22

confidentiality, 23

cost-effectiveness, 20-21

costs and benefits, 17-18

estimating passenger-miles of travel, 67

frequency of collection, 21-22

intermodalism, 24

international travel, 73

multimodal solutions, 17-18

omissions, 22, 30

origin-to-destination flows, 14, 17-18

pipeline accidents, 176

safety data, 24

spatial, 14

statistical practices, 30-31

strategies, 18-19

suboptimal data, 20

telephone surveys, 23

traffic data collection, 40

Data gaps, 120

Data systems coordination, 25-26

Data users, 18-19

Death in transportation crashes and accidents. See Fatalities

Demand responsive transit, 37, 78-79

Department of Homeland Security, 72, 109

Department of Transportation. See U.S. Department of Transportation

Detroit, MI, 74, 219

Disabled persons

access to public transit, 78-79

transit bus access, 66

Disposable personal income per capita, 67

Disposal of dredged materials, 247

wetlands, 253-254

Disposal of transportation wastes, 251-252

DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense

DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy

Domestic freight, 48-50, 91-92. See also Freight

air cargo, 93-95

container trade, 96-97

DOT. See U.S. Department of Transportation

Dredging, 8-9, 246-248

contaminated sediments, 225-226, 246-248

disposal of dredged materials, 253-254

Driver information systems, 40

Driver licensing

commercial drivers license, 120

hazardous materials endorsement, 120

numbers of licensed drivers, 66

Drivers cell phone use, 155-157

Drunk driving, 143

E

Economy of the United States

economic slowdown, 65, 72, 187

Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 7, 29, 91-92, 94, 187, 227-228

for-hire transportation industry, 193-194

impact of world crude oil prices, 232-233

transportation demand, 189-190

impact of highway congestion, 85-86

impact of international travel spending, 71-73

role of domestic freight, 91-92

El Paso, TX, 74

Electronic toll collection, 39-40, 103

fixed-route buses, 40

Emergency management

response times, 157

September 11, 2001, 112

vehicles, 40

Employment

for-hire transportation industry, 193-194

transportation-related employment, 190-192

Energy use, 8, 227-228

alternate fuels, 229-231

freight transportation, 234-235

passenger travel, 234-235

Enplanements, 75-77

Environmental impacts, 8, 225, 255-256

air pollution, 8

dredging, 246-248

greenhouse gas emissions, 238-240

highway congestion, 85-86

leaking storage tanks, 249-250

marine environment, 8-9

oil spills, 244-245

wetlands, 253-254

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Ethanol, 229-231

Explosives (transportation security), 119-120

bombs on commercial aircraft, 115

F

FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration

Fatalities, 6. See also Crashes

air carrier accidents, 7, 165-168

alcohol-related, 149-151

bicycle, 160-162

by mode of transportation, 141-144

driver age, 149-151

general aviation, 168-169

hazardous materials, 179-182

highway, 141-142

large truck crashes, 158-160

maritime, 170-171

on fishing vessels, 170-171

pedestrian, 163-164

pipelines, 176-178

rail accidents, 174-175

recreational boating, 141-142, 171-173

Federal-Aid Highway Act, 15

Federal-Aid Highway program, 253-254

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 15, 16 54, 109, 167, 169

airline delays, 87

general aviation flight hours, 169

National Airspace System (NAS), 87-90

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, 54

Safer Skies program, 167

technologies to detect terrorist threats, 115

Federal Aviation Administration Act, 15

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 119-120

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), 15, 21, 39, 124-125, 146

Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), 69

intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 104

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

(FMCSA), 158

hazardous materials transportation, 119-120

Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), 15, 44-45

Federal Ship Financing Program (Merchant Marine Act of 1936), 131-132

Federal Transit Administration (FTA), 46

FHWA. See Federal Highway Administration

Fishing vessels, 170-171

Fixed-route transit vehicles, 40

Flight delays, 5, 66, 87-90

Florida, 69

cell phone use, 156

magnetic levitation rail projects, 45

For-hire transportation, 193-194

Foreign oil. See Oil and petroleum products

Fossil fuels, 8, 225

FRA. See Federal Railroad Administration

Free Trade Agreement of 1989, 187, 218-220

Freight

air freight, 215

air revenue tonnage, 94

capacity and bottleneck measures, 100

carriers, 91-92

domestic air cargo, 93-95

excess capacity, 94

increase in ton-miles, 66

intermodal freight capacity, 98-101

international trade, 215-217

nonscheduled service, 94

short-haul air shipments, 93-95

cargo at U.S. ports, 51-52

domestic, 5, 65, 91-92, 96-97

energy use, 234-235

flows, 92

Freight Analysis Framework, 92<

increase in ton-miles, 66

intermodal freight capacity, 98-101

international trade, 5, 7, 48-52, 187, 214-217

agricultural goods, 214-215

maritime trade, 215-217

merchant marine, 221-222

NAFTA trade, 218-220

oil imports, 134-135

seaport freight capacity and bottleneck measures, 101<

ton-miles per capita, 91-92

Freight Analysis Framework, 92

FTA. See Federal Transit Administration

Fuel consumption

and highway congestion, 85-86

alternative and replacement fuels, 229-231

household spending, 200-202

petroleum, 229

price vs. consumption, 198

Fuel economy, 236-237

Fuel tax revenues, 210-211

G

Gasoline

consumption and highway congestion, 85-86

fuel tax revenues, 210-211

motor fuel tax, 187

prices, 7, 68, 198-199, 232-233

taxes, 203-205

transportation security, 119-120

GDP. See Gross Domestic Product

General aviation

accident fatality rates, 144-145

fatal accidents, 168-169

Geographic information systems, 26

George Bush Intercontinental Airport, 75

Georgia, vehicle-miles traveled, 69

Atlanta, 55

Hartsfield International Airport, 75

Germany, 72-73, 131, 217

GHG. See Greenhouse gas emissions

Global positioning systems (GPS)

intelligent transportation systems, 39-40

Marine Differential GPS (DGPS), 40-41

Government transportation revenues and expenditures, 187, 203-209

highway capital stocks, 212-213

GPS. See Global positioning systems

Grade crossings, fatal accidents at highway-rail grade crossings, 174-175

Great Lakes shipping, 48-50

Greater Cincinnati Airport, 75

Greater Cleveland Rapid Transit Authority, 79

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 238-243, 255-256. See also specific gases (e.g., carbon monoxide)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 7, 29, 91-92, 94, 187, 227-228

for-hire transportation industry, 193-194

impact of world crude oil prices, 232-233

transportation demand, 189-190

Gulf War. See Persian Gulf War

H

Handicapped persons. See Disabled persons

Hartsfield International Airport, 75

Hazardous materials

accidents and incidents, 176-182

combustible liquids, 179-180

environmental impacts, 225

Hazardous Materials Information System, 179-182

security, 119-120

Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate, 104

High-speed rail, magnetic levitation rail, 44-45

Highways

2000 highway system data, 36

arterials, 56-58

classification of roadways, 56-58

collectors, 59-60

commuting, 82

congestion in metropolitan areas, 85-86

construction, 42

crashes, 141-142

alcohol, 149-151

crash types, 146-147

fatality rates, 143-144

run-off-the-road crashes, 146-147

rural highways, 148

single-vehicle crashes, 146-147

two-vehicle crashes, 146-147

urban highways, 148

highway capital stocks, 212-213

Highway Trust Fund (HTF), 205, 210-211

lane-miles, 35, 42

rail grade crossings, 174-175

revenues and expenditures, 203-209

road conditions, 56-58

Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET), 122-124

terrorist attacks, 110

traffic volume and delays around freight facilities, 98-101

use, 69

Hijacking, 6. See also Terrorism

September 11 terrorist attacks, 109-111, 114-115

Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), 69

Hong Kong, 73

Honolulu International Airport, 76

Household transportation spending, 7, 187, 200-202, 232-233

gasoline prices, 198-199

households without vehicles, 83-84

motor fuel taxes, 210-211

Houston, TX

George Bush Intercontinental Airport, 75-76, 101

HPMS. See Highway Performance Monitoring System

HTF. See Highway Trust Fund

I

Illegal drugs

drug interdiction, 6, 116

smuggling and interdiction, 127-128

Illegal immigrants, 116-118

smuggling and interdiction, 125-126

Illinois, 220

cell phone use, 156

Immigration

Cuban Adjustment Act, 125-126

illegal immigrants, 116-118

interdiction, 125-126

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 72

Imports and exports, 214-217

Income

and vehicle ownership, 83

disposable personal income per capita, 67

impact on travel spending, 71-73

motor fuel taxes, 210-211

Indiana, 220

Indigenous terrorism. See Terrorism

Information technology

in aviation, 35

information dissemination, 13

intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 39-41

Infrastructure

impact on wetlands, 253-254

terrorist threats to, 110

Injuries, 6

bicycles, 160-162

from airbags, 152-153

hazardous materials, 179

pedestrians, 163

rail, 174

recreational boating, 172

Inland waterways

dredging, 246-248

oil spills, 244-245

Inland waterways shipping, 48-50

security, 116-117

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 39-41, 214

electronic toll collection (ETC), 39

global positioning systems, 39-40

ITS infrastructure deployment, 40

motor carriers, 103<

traffic signal control, 39

Intermodalism

data-collection methods, 24

intermodal Bottleneck Evaluation Tool, 99

intermodal freight capacity, 98-101

air freight capacity and bottleneck measures, 100

average annual daily traffic, 98-101

bottlenecks, 98

Intermodal Bottleneck Evaluation Tool, 99

seaport freight capacity and bottleneck measures, 101

intermodal rail traffic, 102

containers on flatcars, 102

trailers on flatcars, 102

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 16-17

International freight. See Freight

International trade, 7, 48-52, 187, 214-217

agricultural goods, 214-215

maritime trade, 215-217

merchant marine, 221-222

merchant ship construction and repair, 131-132

NAFTA trade, 218-220

oil imports, 134-135

ISTEA. See Intermodal Surface Transportation

Efficiency Act

ITS. See Intelligent transportation systems

J

Japan, 72, 188, 214-217

John F. Kennedy International Airport, 166, 216

Jones Act (Merchant Marine Act of 1920), 48, 50

L

Labor productivity, 187, 195-196

Landside access to ports, 51-52

Lane-miles of highways, 42

Laredo, TX, 219

Las Vegas, NV

magnetic levitation rail projects, 45

McCarren International Airport, 75-76

Law enforcement agencies as transportation statistics users, 18-19, 75

Lead-acid batteries, 226, 251-252

Licensed drivers, number of, 66

Light rail

ridership, 82

urban transit, 46-47

Light trucks, 43, 66

crash characteristics, 146-147

fatalities, 141, 143-145

fuel efficiency, 236-237

passenger-miles of travel, 67-68

rollover accidents, 146-147

vehicle-miles of travel, 69

Liquefied natural gas, 230-231

Liquefied petroleum gas, 230-231

Long Beach, CA, port, 96

Los Angeles, CA

magnetic levitation rail projects, 45

port, 96

Louisiana

cell phone use, 156

magnetic levitation rail projects, 45

M

Maglev. See Magnetic levitation high-speed rail

Magnetic levitation high-speed rail, 44-45

Magnetic Levitation Transportation Technology Deployment Program, 44

MARAD. See Maritime Administration

Marine Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), 40-41

Marine environment, 8-9

Marine transportation. See Water transportation

Maritime Administration, 51

Maritime Trade and Transportation (2002), 29

Maryland

Baltimore magnetic levitation high-speed

rail project, 44-45

Baltimore-Washington International Airport, 75-76

Massachusetts

cell phone use, 156

MBTE. See Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether

McCarren International Airport, 75

Merchant marine, 48-50, 215-217

international trade, 221

merchant ship construction and repair, 131-132

workboats, 48, 50

Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), 48, 50

Merchant Marine Act of 1936, 131-132

Methane, 238-240

Methanol, 229-231

Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MBTE), 226, 231, 249-250

Mexico, 72-73, 134-135, 214-215, 217-220

NAFTA, 188

U.S. border, 74

Miami, FL, port, 96

Michigan, 220

border-crossing point at Detroit, 74

Detroit International Wayne County, 75

Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 146

Military Sea Command (U.S. Navy), 122

Military transportation, 121-124

Civil Reserve Air Fleet, 123-124

Maritime Security Program, 121

military aircraft manufacturing, 129-130

National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF), 121-122

Ready Reserve Fleet (RRF), 122

Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET), 124-125

Minivans. See Light trucks

Minnesota

Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, 75-76

Mississippi, 69

Mobile source emissions, 242

Mobility and accessibility, 5, 65

impact of congestion, 66

persons with disabilities, 66, 78-79

Motor boat accidents, 172-173

Motor carriers, 36

and intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 103

hazardous materials transportation security, 119-120

Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate (HELP), 104

intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 103

PrePass system, 103-104

Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act, 158

Motor fuel

costs, 187, 232-233

tax, 187

revenues, 210-211

Motor oil disposal, 251-252

Motorcycles

fatality rates, 143-145

in U.S. vehicle fleet, 43

N

NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement

NAS. See National Airspace System

National Airspace System (NAS), 87-90

National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF), 121-122

National Guard military transportation, 121-124

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 22, 152-157, 237

National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), 21, 27

National security. See Security

National Shipbuilding and Conversion Act of 1993, 131-132

National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 26

National Transportation Library (NTL), 26

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), 24-25, 166

National Urban Mass Transportation Assistance Act, 15

Natural gas, 38, 229

Natural gas pipelines. See Pipelines

Nevada

Las Vegas, 45

McCarren International Airport, 75-76

New Jersey

cell phone use, 156

New Mexico

border crossings, 127-128

cell phone use, 156

vehicle-miles of travel, 69

New York (state), 220

Buffalo-Niagara Falls, 74

cell phone use, 156

John F. Kennedy International Airport, 216

vehicle-miles of travel, 69

NHTS. See National Household Travel Survey

NHTSA. See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Nigeria, 134-135, 215, 217

Nitrogen oxides, 225, 238-243

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 188, 218-220

North American Trade and Travel Trends (2001), 29

North Carolina, 220

Charlotte, 55

NRDF. See National Defense Reserve Fleet

NTL. See National Transportation Library

NTSB. See National Transportation Safety Board

O

Occupational fatalities among transportation workers, 183-184

Ohio, 220

Oil and petroleum products, 38, 225

consumption, 229

international trade, 215

leaking storage tanks, 249-250

oil imports, 134-135

oil production, 133-135

oil spills, 8, 244-245

pipelines, 4

1999 usage data, 38

accident fatality rates, 144

Cano Limon oil pipeline, 109

employment, 190-192

fatal accidents, 176-178

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

government revenues and expenditures, 203-209<

labor productivity, 195-196<

security of petroleum supplies, 133-135

transportation security, 119-120

world crude oil prices, 232-233

world oil reserves, 133-135

Oklahoma, 69

On-demand air taxi accident rates, 144

On-time performance, 5, 66, 87-90

Operation Enduring Freedom, 121-122

Operation Noble Eagle, 121-122

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 134, 232-233

Origin-to-destination flows, 14, 17-18

Oxygenates, 230-231, 249-250

P

Passenger cars, 36

air bags, 152-154

alcohol-related crashes, 149-151

cell phone use, 155-157

crash characteristics, 146-147

consumer prices, 197

energy use, 227-228

fatality rates, 143-145

household transportation spending, 200-202

Passenger-miles of travel (pmt), 5, 65-67, 227-228

Passenger transportation

enplanements, 75-77

energy use, 234-235

international travel, 71-73

Pavement on airport runways, 54-55

Pedalcyclists. See Bicyclists

Pedestrian accidents, 146-147

alcohol involvement and use, 163-164

Pennsylvania, 220

cell phone use, 156

Persian Gulf War, 121

Personal floatation devices (PFD), role in recreational boating accidents, 172-173

Personal watercraft accidents. See Recreational boating accidents

Petroleum products. See Oil and petroleum products

Physically handicapped persons. See Disabled persons

Pickup trucks. See Light trucks

Pipelines, 4

1999 usage data, 38

accident fatality rates, 144

Cano Limon oil pipeline, 109

employment, 190-192

fatal accidents, 176-178

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

government revenues and expenditures, 203-209

labor productivity, 195-196

Piracy, 116

Pittsburgh, PA

magnetic levitation rail projects, 44-45

pmt. See Passenger-miles of travel

Poisonous gases. See Hazardous materials

Poisons

airborne toxins, 112-113

transportation security, 119-120

Population

freight ton-miles per capita, 91-92

relationship to passenger-miles of travel, 67

U.S. resident population in relation to air cargo increases, 94

Port Huron, MI, 74, 219

Portland, OR

Portland International Airport, 75-76

Ports, 51-53

channel depth, 96-97

container trade, 96-97

dredging, 246-248

international trade, 214-217, 219-220

landside access, 51

seaport freight capacity and bottleneck measures, 101

security, 116-117

terrorist attacks, 111

Poverty and vehicle ownership, 83

PrePass automatic vehicle identification system, 103-104

Productivity, 195-196

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

labor productivity, 187

ports, 51-52

Public transit. See Transit

R

Radioactive materials. See Hazardous materials

Rail

2000 rail system data, 37

accidents, 174-175

commuter, 46-47

fatalities at highway-rail grade crossings, 174-175

high-speed rail, 44-45

government revenues and expenditures, 203-209

intercity rail, 45, 67

intermodal rail traffic, 102

magnetic levitation rail, 44-45

stations, access for disabled persons, 78-79

terrorist attacks, 111

trailers on flatcars, 102

transit

ridership, 82

terrorist attacks, 111-112

transportation

employment, 190-192

energy use, 227-228, 234-235

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

government revenues and expenditures, 203-209

labor productivity, 195-196

Ramps for handicapped access, 78-79

Ready Reserve Fleet (RRF), 122

Real-time traffic monitoring and commercial vehicle operations, 103

Recreational boating accidents, 141-142, 144, 171-173

Reformulated gasoline, 231

Revenue ton-miles, 93-95

Roads, 42

2000 highway system data, 36

classification of roadways, 56-58

commuting, 82

congestion in metropolitan areas, 85-86

construction, 42

crashes, 141-142

alcohol, 149-151

fatality rates, 143-144

run-off-the-road crashes, 146-147

rural highways, 148

single-vehicle crashes, 146-147

two-vehicle crashes, 146-147

types of, 146-147

urban highways, 148

highway capital stocks, 212-213

highway lane-miles, 35, 42

Highway Trust Fund (HTF), 210-211

rail grade crossings, 174-175

road conditions, 56-58

Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET), 123-124

terrorist attacks, 110

traffic volume and delays around freight facilities, 98-101

use, 69

Rollover crashes, 146-147

RRF. See Ready Reserve Fleet

Rubber tires, 226

Rumble strips, 146-147

Run-off-the-road (ROR) crashes, 146-147

Runway conditions, 54-55

Runway incursions, 168

Rural areas

highway accidents, 148

household transportation spending, 200-202

rural transit, 47

S

Sacramento International Airport, 75-76

Safety, 6-7, 139-140

accident data collection, 24-25

accident fatality rates, 143

accident types, 146-147

air bags, 152-154

child safety seats, 153-154

driver distraction, 155-157

highway crashes on rural and urban highways, 148

highway crash characteristics, 146-147

rumble strips, 146-147

safety belts, 7, 143, 152-154

transportation worker fatalities, 183-184

weather in accidents, 148

Safety Data Initiative, 25, 26

San Ysidro, CA, 74

Saudi Arabia, 134-135, 215, 217

Sea Marshall Program, 118

Security, 6

aircraft manufacturing, 129-130

airplane manufacturing, 6

bombs on commercial aircraft, 115

hazardous materials, 119-120

hijackings, 114-115

illegal drug smuggling and interdiction, 127-128

illegal immigrant smuggling and interdiction, 125-126

illegal immigrants, 116-118

inland waterways, 116-117

maritime transportation, 116-118

merchant ship construction and repair, 131-132

military transportation, 121-124

oil imports, 134-135

passenger screening, 109

petroleum supplies, 133-135

ports, 116

shipbuilding, 6

terrorist threats to transportation, 107-110

U.S. Coast Guard role, 117-118

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 6, 65, 72, 88-89, 107-110, 116, 129-130, 165-167, 183-184, 198

Shipbuilding, 6

capital improvements, 131-132

Federal Ship Financing Program (Merchant Marine Act of 1936), 131-132

merchant ship construction and repair, 131-132

National Shipbuilding and Conversion Act of 1993, 131-132

Ships. See Vessels; Water transportation

Short-haul air shipments, 93-95

Side impact crashes, 146-147

Single-vehicle highway crashes, 146-147

involving large trucks, 158-160

South Korea, 73, 131, 217

Spontaneously combustible materials. See Hazardous materials

Sport utility vehicles (SUVs). See Light trucks

State Transportation Profiles, 29

Statistical practices, 30-31

Storage tanks, 226

leaks, 249-250

Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET), 124-125

Suboptimal data, 20

Subways. See Transit (heavy rail)

SUVs. See Light trucks

T

Tariffs, 187

Taxes (government transportation revenue and expenditures), 203-209

TEA-21. See Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

Telephone surveys, 23

Terrorism, 65, 71-72

bombs on commercial aircraft, 115

civil aviation, 114-115

hazardous materials transportation security, 119-120

terrorist threats to transportation, 107-110

U.S. Coast Guard anti-terrorism actions, 128

Texas, 69, 220

border crossings, 127-128

El Paso, 74

George Bush Intercontinental Airport, 75-76

Texas Transportation Institute, 85-86

Tire disposal, 251-252

Ton-miles of domestic air cargo, 93-95

Ton-miles of freight shipped domestically, 91-92

Toxic air pollutants, 241

Trade

container traffic, 5

domestic, 48-50

international, 7, 48-52, 187, 214-217

agricultural goods, 214-215

maritime trade, 215-217

merchant marine, 221-222

merchant ship construction and repair, 131-132

NAFTA trade, 218-220

oil imports, 134-135

Traffic congestion

impact on accessibility, 66

in metropolitan areas, 85-86

Traffic data collection, 40

Traffic signal control, 39

Trailers on flatcars, 102

Trains. See Rail

Transit

2000 transit data, 37

access for persons with disabilities, 78-79

automatic vehicle location devices, 39-40

commuter rail, 46-47

commuting, 82

demand responsive transit, 78-79

employment, 190-192

energy use, 227-228

fixed-route vehicles, 40

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

government revenues and expenditures, 203-209

heavy rail, 37, 46-47, 78-79, 80-81

household transportation spending, 200-202

intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 40

light rail, 46-47, 82

operating agencies, 37

revenue vehicle-miles, 46-47

ridership, 82

rural transit, 47

urban transit, 46-47

vehicles, 37

Transmission pipelines. See Pipelines

Transportation demand, 189-190

Transportation employment, 190-194

Transportation energy use, 227-228

Transportation equipment manufacturing, 190-192

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), 16, 17, 30, 44

government revenues and expenditures, 203

Transportation infrastructure. See Infrastructure

Transportation Infrastructure Capital Stock Account, 212-213

Transportation Satellite Accounts (TSA), 29

Transportation Security Administration (TSA), 72, 109

Transportation statistics, 13-31. See also Data collection; Data analysis

Travel

air, 67

increases in passenger travel, 67

international, 66, 71-73

Trucks/trucking, 120

commercial vehicles, 36

data collection, 28

energy use, 227-228

fatality rates, 143-145

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

hazardous materials Commercial Drivers License endorsement, 120

intercity trucking, 66, 91-92

increase in ton-miles, 66

intermodal freight capacity, 98-101

labor productivity, 195-196

large-truck crashes and fatality rates, 144-145, 158-159

large trucks in U.S. vehicle fleet, 43

light trucks, 43

transportation-related employment, 190-192

truck drivers, 120

worker fatalities, 183-184

vehicle-miles of travel, 69

TSA. See Transportation Satellite Accounts;

Transportation Security Administration

U

Underground storage tanks, 226

leaks, 249-250

United Kingdom, 72

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 238-240

Urban areas

crashes on urban highways, 148

fatal bicycle accidents, 160-162

highway congestion, 85-86

household transportation spending, 200-202

locations of pedestrian accidents, 163-164

Urban transit. See Transit

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 15, 117

dredging of waterways, 246-247

U.S. Foreign Waterborne Transportation Statistics, 22

wetlands, 253-254

USCG. See U.S. Coast Guard

U.S. Census Bureau, 22, 27

U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), 6, 15, 65,171, 244-245

antiterrorism actions, 108-109, 128

illegal drug smuggling and interdiction, 107-108, 127-128

illegal smuggling and interdiction, 125-126

maritime security and interdiction, 117-118

oil spills, 244

recreational boating, 172-173

Sea Marshal program, 118

U.S. Customs Service

illegal drug smuggling and interdiction, 127-128

illegal immigrant interdiction, 125-126

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), 121-122

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

greenhouse gas emissions, 238-239

U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 15, 16, 21, 22, 26, 28, 31, 89, 140. See also specific agencies

dredging, 8-9

hazardous materials, 179

safety, 139-140

terrorism, 119

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 226, 255

emissions standards, 241

fuel economy, 237

leaking underground storage tanks, 249-250

U.S. Foreign Waterborne Transportation Statistics, 22

U.S. International Travel and Transportation Trends (2002), 29

U.S. vehicle fleet. See Vehicle fleet

USA Patriot Act, 72, 119-120

V

Vehicle fleet, 69-70

composition and trends, 43

Vehicle manufacturing employment, 190-192

Vehicle-miles of travel (vmt), 5, 69-70

highway conditions, 56-58

Vehicles, 36-37

ownership, 83-84

top U.S. border crossing points, 74

Venezuela, 134-135

Vessels. See also Water transportation

accidents by vessel type, 170-171

deep draft, 51-52

merchant, 48-50

Virginia

cell phone use, 156

vmt. See Vehicle-miles of travel

Volatile organic compounds, 225, 241-243

W

Washington, DC

airport closings in September 2001, 65

magnetic levitation rail projects, 44-45

vehicle-miles of travel, 69

Wastes

disposal of transportation wastes, 251-252

wastewater discharged from ships, 8

Water pollution

contaminated sediments, 246

oil spills, 244-245

underground water, 249

Water transportation, 221-222

2000 fleet and facilities data, 29, 38

accident fatality rates, 144

armed robbery, 116

coastwise trade, 48-50

container trade, 5

energy use, 227-228

fatal accidents, 170-171

fuel cost per dollar of net output, 198-199

government revenues and expenditures, 203-209

marine military transportation, 121-122

Maritime Security Program, 121

maritime trade, 215-217

merchant marine, 48-50, 215-217

international trade, 221-222

merchant ship construction and repair, 131-132

workboats, 48, 50

piracy, 116

recreational boating accidents, 141-142

security, 116, 118

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 65, 116

terrorist attacks, 110

U.S. Foreign Waterborne Transportation Statistics, 22

waterfront congestion, 51-52

Weather

as a factor in highway crashes, 148

flight delays, 87-90

general aviation accidents, 168-169

Wetlands, 253-254

disposal of dredged materials, 247

Workers

fatalities among transportation workers, 183-184

World crude oil prices, 232-233

World oil reserves, 133-135