TABLE C-9 Net Federal Subsidies per Thousand Passenger-Miles by Mode: Fiscal Years 1993-2003

TABLE C-9 Net Federal Subsidies per Thousand Passenger-Miles by Mode: Fiscal Years 1993-2003

Net federal subsidy is estimated as federal outlays minus federal receipts from transportation taxes and user fees.

Chained 2000 dollars per thousand passenger-miles

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  Highway Autos, pickups, and vans Buses Air Commercial aviation General aviation Transit Railroad Total, all modes
1993 −1.5 −1.5 3.6 11.7 8.5 128.7 106.6 140.6 1.0
1994 −2.1 −2.2 3.7 10.4 7.7 117.4 110.2 145.0 0.4
1995 −2.5 −2.7 3.5 9.4 6.9 103.6 125.8 189.2 0.1
1996 −2.5 −2.7 3.4 13.9 11.4 104.0 115.9 196.9 0.5
1997 −2.2 −2.3 3.4 9.6 7.5 87.2 116.2 212.7 0.5
1998 −2.9 −3.1 2.9 2.4 0.0 86.9 103.4 406.6 −0.9
1999 −2.5 −2.7 3.2 −2.2 −4.2 70.3 96.0 268.6 −1.2
2000 −2.1 −2.3 3.7 −0.8 −2.8 64.9 111.9 113.8 −0.7
2001 −1.2 −1.3 4.0 5.8 3.0 89.7 141.0 105.9 1.0
2002 −1.0 −1.0 4.4 U 6.7 U 151.4 199.3 1.8
2003 −1.1 −1.2 4.2 U 2.7 U 95.3 171.3 0.7

Current dollars per thousand passenger-miles

  Highway Autos, pickups, and vans Buses Air Commercial aviation General aviation Transit Railroad Total, all modes
1993 −1.2 −2.0 3.0 9.8 7.1 107.7 89.3 117.7 0.9
1994 −1.8 −3.0 3.2 9.0 6.7 101.4 95.2 125.2 0.4
1995 −2.3 −3.7 3.1 8.4 6.1 92.5 112.4 169.1 0.1
1996 −2.3 −3.8 3.1 12.6 10.4 94.9 105.7 179.6 0.5
1997 −2.0 −3.3 3.2 9.0 7.0 81.3 108.2 198.2 0.4
1998 −2.8 −4.5 2.8 2.2 0.0 81.9 97.5 383.3 −0.8
1999 −2.5 −4.1 3.1 −2.1 −4.1 68.1 93.0 260.2 −1.2
2000 −2.1 −3.6 3.7 −0.8 −2.8 64.9 111.9 113.8 −0.7
2001 −1.2 −2.2 4.1 5.9 3.1 91.4 143.6 107.9 1.1
2002 −1.0 −1.8 4.7 U 7.0 U 159.2 209.7 1.9
2003 −1.2 −2.1 4.6 U 2.9 U 102.6 184.4 0.7

KEY: U = data are unavailable.

NOTES: Data may not add to total because of independent rounding. Actual outlays and receipts are used in the calculation. Negative numbers show user charge payments to the federal government in excess of cost responsibility. The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 allowed motor fuel distributors to delay until Oct. 5, 1998, the payment of fuel taxes that otherwise would be due in August and September of 1998. This provision effectively shifted about $6 billion in Highway Trust Fund receipts from 1998 to 1999. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics included these funds in fiscal year 1998, when they were actually paid by highway users. There is some double counting of bus passenger-miles in the highway and transit modes. However, no adjustments were made since data are not available to reliably estimate the magnitude of the double counting.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Federal Subsidies to Passenger Transportation, available at http://www.bts.gov/, as of December 2006.