TABLE D-1 Travel Time Index by Metro Area: 1993 and 2003

TABLE D-1 Travel Time Index by Metro Area: 1993 and 2003

The Travel Time Index (TTI) is the ratio of peak period travel time to free-flow travel time. It expresses the average amount of extra time it takes to travel in the peak period relative to free-flow travel.

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Urban areas 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Akron, OH 1.06 1.07 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.10 1.09 1.09
Albany-Schenectady, NY 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08
Albuquerque, NM 1.14 1.18 1.21 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.24 1.21 1.20 1.17 1.17
Allentown-Bethlehem, PA-NJ 1.12 1.13 1.13 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.14
Anchorage, AK 1.03 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05
Atlanta, GA 1.18 1.24 1.26 1.29 1.31 1.34 1.32 1.35 1.40 1.42 1.46
Austin, TX 1.14 1.17 1.20 1.23 1.26 1.24 1.26 1.26 1.30 1.31 1.33
Bakersfield, CA 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07
Baltimore, MD 1.20 1.22 1.24 1.24 1.26 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.30 1.35 1.37
Beaumont, TX 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07
Birmingham, AL 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17
Boston, MA-NH-RI 1.26 1.27 1.25 1.26 1.29 1.30 1.29 1.30 1.30 1.35 1.34
Boulder, CO 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.08 1.09 1.08
Bridgeport-Stamford, CT-NY 1.15 1.17 1.19 1.18 1.21 1.24 1.28 1.27 1.27 1.30 1.29
Brownsville, TX 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06
Buffalo, NY 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.10
Cape Coral, FL 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.17 1.18
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 1.15 1.14 1.14 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.17 1.18 1.17 1.18 1.20
Charlotte, NC-SC 1.17 1.16 1.17 1.19 1.23 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.26 1.31 1.31
Chicago, IL-IN 1.34 1.33 1.38 1.44 1.43 1.47 1.47 1.44 1.47 1.54 1.57
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 1.15 1.18 1.18 1.20 1.22 1.22 1.21 1.23 1.22 1.22 1.22
Cleveland, OH 1.08 1.10 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.15 1.15 1.13 1.12 1.10 1.09
Colorado Springs, CO 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.13 1.16 1.18 1.21 1.22 1.21 1.19
Columbia, SC 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06
Columbus, OH 1.14 1.17 1.18 1.20 1.21 1.21 1.22 1.19 1.18 1.19 1.19
Corpus Christi, TX 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.05
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.24 1.27 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.35 1.36
Dayton, OH 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.10 1.09 1.08
Denver-Aurora, CO 1.24 1.24 1.30 1.33 1.37 1.39 1.38 1.41 1.45 1.40 1.40
Detroit, MI 1.36 1.33 1.32 1.33 1.35 1.36 1.35 1.33 1.35 1.36 1.38
El Paso, TX-NM 1.07 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.09 1.10 1.14 1.16 1.17 1.17 1.17
Eugene, OR 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.09 1.12 1.11 1.10 1.11
Fresno, CA 1.12 1.11 1.13 1.13 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.19 1.16 1.15 1.14
Grand Rapids, MI 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.13 1.14
Hartford, CT 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.11
Honolulu, HI 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.23 1.20 1.21 1.21 1.19 1.19 1.18 1.19
Houston, TX 1.24 1.27 1.28 1.32 1.35 1.34 1.37 1.36 1.38 1.41 1.42
Indianapolis, IN 1.16 1.20 1.22 1.25 1.26 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.24 1.24
Jacksonville, FL 1.14 1.14 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.14 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.18
Kansas City, MO-KS 1.06 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.11 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.11
Laredo, TX 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.07 1.08
Las Vegas, NV 1.24 1.28 1.27 1.30 1.33 1.33 1.34 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.39
Little Rock, AK 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.07 1.06 1.06
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA 1.73 1.64 1.72 1.78 1.77 1.83 1.80 1.76 1.78 1.77 1.75
Louisville, KY-IN 1.15 1.16 1.16 1.19 1.21 1.22 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.24 1.24
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 1.11 1.14 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.22 1.22
Miami, FL 1.26 1.26 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.40 1.42
Milwaukee, WI 1.17 1.16 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.22 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.23 1.21
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN 1.16 1.20 1.22 1.23 1.30 1.32 1.35 1.32 1.34 1.34 1.34
Nashville-Davidson, TN 1.09 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.16 1.15 1.17 1.18 1.17 1.19 1.18
New Haven, CT 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.14 1.13
New Orleans, LA 1.16 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.18 1.17 1.18 1.19
New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT 1.28 1.31 1.33 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.40 1.38 1.38 1.40 1.39
Oklahoma City, OK 1.04 1.04 1.06 1.07 1.09 1.09 1.11 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.10
Omaha, NE-IA 1.10 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18
Orlando, FL 1.21 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.24 1.27 1.27 1.28 1.30 1.31 1.30
Oxnard-Ventura, CA 1.10 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.14 1.15 1.19 1.19 1.21 1.21 1.23
Pensacola, FL-AL 1.11 1.10 1.11 1.10 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.14 1.12 1.12 1.12
Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD 1.20 1.21 1.24 1.27 1.27 1.33 1.33 1.31 1.35 1.35 1.32
Phoenix, AZ 1.27 1.28 1.24 1.30 1.33 1.31 1.38 1.38 1.40 1.35 1.35
Pittsburgh, PA 1.09 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Portland, OR-WA 1.24 1.25 1.28 1.31 1.35 1.34 1.37 1.37 1.39 1.38 1.37
Providence, RI-MA 1.11 1.11 1.12 1.14 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.18 1.19
Raleigh-Durham, NC 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.13 1.15 1.15 1.14 1.16 1.19 1.18 1.19
Richmond, VA 1.07 1.08 1.11 1.11 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.09
Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 1.27 1.23 1.26 1.28 1.27 1.31 1.33 1.33 1.32 1.34 1.37
Rochester, NY 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07
Sacramento, CA 1.19 1.22 1.21 1.24 1.23 1.25 1.27 1.29 1.32 1.34 1.37
Salem, OR 1.06 1.07 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.11 1.11
Salt Lake City, UT 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.17 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.23 1.26 1.28
San Antonio, TX 1.07 1.08 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.16 1.22 1.24 1.22 1.23 1.22
San Diego, CA 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.23 1.25 1.26 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.40 1.41
San Francisco-Oakland, CA 1.44 1.40 1.45 1.45 1.42 1.47 1.49 1.54 1.54 1.55 1.54
San Jose, CA 1.34 1.33 1.34 1.33 1.30 1.34 1.39 1.42 1.43 1.39 1.37
Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 1.18 1.19 1.16 1.19 1.19 1.20 1.24 1.22 1.22 1.25 1.25
Seattle, WA 1.35 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.40 1.39 1.40 1.35 1.35 1.36 1.38
Spokane, WA 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.08
Springfield, MA-CT 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.07 1.06
St. Louis, MO-IL 1.18 1.19 1.21 1.21 1.24 1.24 1.25 1.25 1.23 1.24 1.22
Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL 1.30 1.32 1.32 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.29 1.27 1.31 1.31 1.33
Toledo, OH-MI 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.10
Tucson, AZ 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.19 1.20 1.20 1.19 1.22 1.28 1.31
Tulsa, OK 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Virginia Beach, VA 1.13 1.15 1.16 1.18 1.18 1.19 1.19 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.21
Washington, DC-VA-MD 1.38 1.37 1.40 1.44 1.43 1.46 1.47 1.44 1.46 1.50 1.51
85-Area Average 1.28 1.27 1.29 1.31 1.32 1.34 1.35 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.37
Very Large Area Average 1.38 1.37 1.40 1.43 1.43 1.46 1.46 1.45 1.47 1.49 1.48
Large Area Average 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.28
Medium Area Average 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.18
Small Area Average 1.06 1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10

NOTE: To determine the increased travel time, a TTI of 1.3, for example, indicates a 20-minute free-flow trip will take 26 minutes during the peak travel time periods, a 6-minute (30 percent) travel time penalty.

SOURCE: Texas A&M University, Texas Transportation Institute, 2005 Urban Mobility Report (College Station, TX: 2005), also available at http://tti.tamu.edu/, as of July 2006.