Appendix C-International Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Infrastructure Development for Transportation Applications

Appendix C-International Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Infrastructure Development for Transportation Applications

(Note: currency converted using April 20, 2009 conversion rates)

Hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure development is a priority around the world. Below is a summary of activities in key countries:


  • Canada currently has 16 hydrogen filling stations that are used by 20 fuel cell buses, 10 hydrogen ICE shuttle buses, 4 hydrogen/compressed natural gas transit buses, 5 fuel cell light-duty vehicles, and 12 ICE pick-up trucks.
  • British Columbia is working with through a public-private partnership to develop the British Columbia Hydrogen Highway. It will accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology and creating a legacy of economic growth and environmental benefits through three phases of implementation:
    • Phase One (2004-2007) built 6 stations and purchased 20 fuel cell buses for use in Whistler for the 2010 Winter Olympics.
    • Phase Two (2008-2009) is focusing on the delivery and operation the Phase One infrastructure and educating the public on technology.
    • Phase Three (2010 and beyond) will focus on expanding the infrastructure to 30 - 50 stations in order to service large-scale deployments of vehicles in the 2015 timeframe.


  • Japan has a significant Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Project that includes development of vehicle infrastructure. The project is coordinated by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). Phase 1 of the fuel cell vehicle demonstration project was from 2002 - 2005 and Phase 2 started in 2006 and will run through 2010. In 2008:
    • The project included 43 fuel cell vehicles, 5 fuel cell buses and 12 hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICE) vehicles using 11 fueling stations.
    • There are 9 vehicle manufacturers and 16 hydrogen infrastructure suppliers involved in the project.
    • Over 3,300 stationary residential Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells are operating as part of the stationary fuel cell demonstration project.
  • Currently forming a Low-Carbon Mobility Committee that will develop and steer social demonstration plans in the projected deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle infrastructure from 2011 to 2015, and will study deployment measures, systems and legislation to be put in place for commercialization to begin in 2015.
  • Current plan is for hydrogen infrastructure to be built prior to vehicle introduction.
    • By 2020, 1000 hydrogen fueling stations will serve the anticipated 50,000 fuel cell vehicles manufactured per year.
    • In 2030, 5000 stations will support 1,000,000 fuel vehicles per year production.

European Commission

  • The European Commission launched the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) in October 2008. The JTI is a public-private partnership designed to facilitate and accelerate the development and deployment of cost-competitive, world class European hydrogen and fuel cell based energy systems and component technologies for applications in transport, stationary and portable power.
    • The JTI budget from 2008 - 2013 is 470 Million Euro ($613.3 Million) of government funding that requires a 100% industry matching.
  • In September 2008, the European Parliament passed a regulation that implements a simplified process for hydrogen vehicle approvals. The objectives of the regulation are to unify requirements in all 27 States for hydrogen fueled vehicles, treat hydrogen vehicles the same as conventional vehicles and to ensure the same level of safety as conventional vehicles.


  • The German National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Program (NOW) is a joint program funded by four German Federal Ministries. The NOW funds research, development and demonstration activities, including hydrogen infrastructure construction, in order to facilitate market penetration of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The government budget for NOW from 2007 - 2016 is 700 Million Euro ($913.4 Million), with a cost share from industry of an additional 700 Million Euro ($913.4 Million).
  • Germany's hydrogen and fuel cell technology demonstration and infrastructure activities currently include 7 hydrogen filling stations, 20 hydrogen buses, 15 fuel cell vehicles, and 2 hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles.
    • These demonstration and infrastructure projects were funded by the Germany federal government and the state of North Rhine Westfalia (NRW) from 2003 - 2008.
    • The NRW infrastructure is part of the on-going NRW Hydrogen Hyway program, which consists of 40 sub-projects in 9 locations around the state of NRW and one location in Belgium. The planned activities encompass the whole range of hydrogen utilization, including transport, stationary, and special market applications. The overall budget for these projects is 200 Million Euro ($261 Million) from 2009 to 2011, with the Government of NRW committing approximately 70 Million Euro ($91.3 Million) and the federal government and industry contributing the remaining funds.
    • 150 miles of industrial hydrogen pipeline currently operates in NRW. The state government is currently finishing a study of local industries to determine the amount of hydrogen that could be supplied from industrial waste streams for use in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This is expected as one means for providing hydrogen fuel for vehicles in the near-term. The study is schedule for completion in June 2009.
  • 15 Million Euro ($19.57 Million) of the recent German economic stimulus package is dedicated to increase hydrogen fueling infrastructure. The funding language states that Germany expects to have hydrogen fuel cell vehicles commercialized by 2015 and that hydrogen infrastructure needs to be in over supply at this time. The funding is directed toward the construction of 25 additional hydrogen filling stations in synergy with the expected locations for hydrogen fuel cell vehicle usage. There is expected to be cost share from industry partners but the amount has yet to be determined.
  • Zemships (zero emission ships) will be cruising Alster Lake near Hamburg, Germany, this summer. The $6.7 million Zemships project, which is a hydrogen fuel cell ferryboat that will carry 100-passengers across the lake. Instead of conventional mechanical pistons, the ionic compression is used to compress H2 up to 6,500 psi. "Major advantages of this compressor design are excellent and highly energy-efficient delivery rates, no contamination of the hydrogen gas (very important for fuel-cell applications), less moving parts and a reduced n


  • As reported by the Hydrogen Link Denmark Association, a recent government climate plan calls for strong investments in hydrogen fuelling stations, allowing for all new car sales in 2025 to be electric and hydrogen only.
    • Further public funding for energy R,D&D are to be doubled to 134 Million Euro ($178 Million) annually, where one third of the funds in the past have been spent on hydrogen and fuel cells.


  • The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP) constitutes a transnational networking platform that catalyses and coordinates collaboration between three national networking bodies - HyNor (Norway), Hydrogen Link (Denmark) and Hydrogen Sweden (Sweden). The collaboration consists of regional clusters involving major and small industries, research institutions and local/regional authorities.
  • Today four hydrogen refueling stations and around 20 vehicles are in operation in Scandinavia with ongoing activities to ensure a further 9 stations in the coming year together with up to 50 vehicles.
  • The 2015 goal is to build 15 large-scale production and fueling facilities and 30 satellite stations for smaller volumes and to distribute hydrogen in rural areas. The SHHP intends to have these stations used by 100 buses, 500 cars and 500 specialty vehicles.

International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy

(IPHE) was established in 2003 as an international institution to accelerate the transition to a hydrogen economy. Each of the following IPHE partner countries has committed to accelerate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to improve the security of their energy supply, environment, and economy:

New Zealand
Russian Federation
European Commission
Republic of Korea
United Kingdom
United States

The IPHE provides a mechanism for partners to organize, coordinate and implement effective, efficient, and focused international research, development, demonstration and commercial utilization activities related to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The IPHE provides a forum for advancing policies, and uniform codes and standards that can accelerate the cost-effective transition to a hydrogen economy. It also educates and informs stakeholders and the general public on the benefits of, and challenges to, establishing a hydrogen economy.