Security, Preparedness and Response Strategic Goal
Balance transportation security requirements with the safety, mobility, and economic needs of the Nation and be prepared to respond to emergencies that affect the viability of the transportation sector.
There is a critical need to ensure the transportation system’s rapid response and recovery from disruptions due to attacks, natural disasters, and other major events. DOT will also work with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Defense Department, and State, local, and private-sector partners to protect our transportation system against terrorism and to ensure that it remains a vital link for defense mobilization. Two RD&T strategies represent the primary research topics in support of the Department’s security goal:
The following sections summarize the research areas and primary RD&T activities for advancing these strategies. Appendix C shows anticipated funding levels for FY 2006 through 2010.
Security, Preparedness and Response
One of the Department’s most pressing concerns is to work with DHS to identify, support, and conduct RD&T on technologies, policies, and methods that will assure the continued security and preparedness of the Nation’s transportation network. In support of this RD&T strategy, the Department will conduct research in two critical areas: preparedness and response, and transportation security risks and vulnerabilities. The primary RD&T programs that will support these areas are described below.
The focus of this RD&T is to improve the transportation system’s ability to mitigate and respond to attacks, natural disasters, emergencies, and other significant events that place a substantial demand on the transportation system. These efforts will include the RD&T programs described below. Table 7-1 shows program milestones.
Evacuation Management and Operations (ITS JPO). Improves operational technology and practices to enable the safe and effective movement of people and goods during emergency evacuation situations (both with and without notice). The program will address the application of intelligent transportation system technologies to improve notice and no-notice evacuation planning and execution, with an orientation that includes both decisionmakers and evacuees. This program will also support Safety RD&T Strategy 2 and Reduced Congestion RD&T Strategy 1.
Next Generation 9-1-1 (ITS JPO). Aims to establish the foundation for public emergency communications services in a wireless mobile society. This initiative will enable an enhanced 9-1-1 system that permits the transmission of voice, data, or video from any communication device to Public Safety Answering Points and onto emergency responder networks. This program will also support Safety RD&T Strategy 2.
Identify Solutions to Improve Transit Emergency Preparedness (Improve Safety and Emergency Preparedness). Assists States, transit authorities, and the industry through security technical assistance and improved technology and training. Research will address methods, techniques, technologies, and training to improve emergency preparedness, including a web-based approach to managing emergency incidents. This program will also support Safety RD&T Strategy 2.
Research in this area seeks to develop, deploy, and promote technologies, designs, and procedures to reduce the vulnerability of the transportation system and to accurately assess security risks and vulnerabilities. The RD&T programs that will support this area are described below. Milestones for these programs are in Table 7-2.
Anti-Ram Barriers. Develops models of vehicles and roadside hardware to assess and improve roadside objects used as anti-ram barriers.
Bridge and Tunnel Security Research. Conducts research to develop and implement technologies and methodologies to reduce risk and vulnerability of bridges and tunnels from terrorist acts.
Railroad System Issues. Provides for research in railroad systems safety and infrastructure security. The program will develop encryption technology and key management for wireless communications used in train control and operations management to protect train movements and routings from hackers and vandalism that may lead to train collisions, runaway equipment, overspeed derailments, possible danger to roadway workers, or disruption to the national railroad network. This program will also support Security RD&T Strategy 2 and Safety RD&T Strategies 1 and 2.
Security Policy. Conducts research to support the development of Departmental security policy. In this area the program will assess the mobility and economic impacts of container security measures and of a terrorist attack on a major transit system. This program will also support Security RD&T Strategy 2.
Security, Preparedness and Response
Working with DHS, the Department has a lead role in developing technologies, tools, and procedures to ensure the secure shipment of hazardous materials and to prepare for potential hazmat emergencies. DOT will advance this RD&T strategy over the next five years through security research in the area of hazardous materials risks and vulnerabilities.
DOT research in this area addresses such critical issues as hazardous materials routing, tank car security, and emergency response. The RD&T programs that will support this area are described below. Table 7-3 shows program milestones.
Improve Security Through Safety Initiatives. Develops and implements safety initiatives that also have security benefits for truck and motor coach operations. In particular, the program will examine hazardous materials routing procedures and security risks and develop an enhanced routing tool for use by FMCSA and industry.
Railroad System Issues. Provides for research in railroad systems safety and infrastructure security. In this area, the program will conduct research on tank car security. This program will also support Security RD&T Strategy 1 and Safety RD&T Strategies 1 and 2.
Security Policy. Conducts research to support the development of Departmental security policy. One project will work with industry to explore measures that can be taken to limit exposure to toxic inhalation materials in urban areas while maintaining expeditious delivery of these shipments. This program will also support Security RD&T Strategy 1.
Hazardous Materials Safety R&D. Provides the foundation for PHMSA’s hazardous material regulatory, enforcement, and emergency response actions. In this research area, the program will identify and quantify security risks inherent in hazardous materials transportation, point to ways to control and minimize these risks, and assess emergency response capabilities for both intentional and unintentional hazardous material transportation incidents. This program will also support Safety RD&T Strategy 1, the RD&T Strategy for Global Connectivity, and Environmental Stewardship RD&T Strategy 1.