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L: Litre (49CFR171)

L4: Automatic Lockup Four Speed (DOE6)

LAA: Local Airport Advisory (FAA4)

LAAS: Low Altitude Alert System (FAA4)

Laboring: The effect of shallow water on the sound or performance of the boat's engine. (TNDOT1)

LACV: Lighter Air Cushioned Vehicle (MTMC1)

Lading: Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment. (MARAD2)

Lagoon: (See also Lake, Levee) A shallow area of salt water separated from the open sea by sand or shingle banks. The sheet of water between an offshore reef, especially of coral, and the mainland. The sheet of water within a ring or horseshoe-shaped atoll. (DOI4)

Lake: See also Lagoon, Levee.

Lake: Any standing body of inland water. (DOI4)

Lake/Pond: A standing body of water with a predominantly natural shoreline surrounded by land. (DOI3)

Lakewise or Great Lakes: These terms apply to traffic between U.S. ports of the Great Lakes system. The Great Lakes system is treated as a separate system rather than as a part of the inland system. (TNDOT1)

Lamp: A device used to produce artificial light. (49CFR393)

Land: To moor or bring a boat to the riverbank. (TNDOT1)

Land Area: Based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census definition, this includes dry land and land temporarily or partially covered by water, such as marshlands, swamps and river flood plains, systems, sloughs, estuaries and canals less than 1/8 of a statute mile (0.2 kilometers) in width and lakes, reservoirs and ponds less than 1/16 square mile (0.16 square kilometers) in area. [For Alaska, 1/2 mile (0.8 kilometers) and 1 square mile (2.60 square kilometers) are substituted for these values]. The net land area excludes areas of oceans, bays, sounds, etc., lying within the 3 mile (4.8 kilometers) U.S. jurisdiction as well as inland water areas larger than indicated above. (FHWA2)

Land Use: Designates whether the general area in which the crash occurred is urban or rural, based on 1980 Census Data. (NHTSA1)

Land Wall: The concrete wall that forms part of the lock and is nearest to the land on the shore on which the lock chamber is constructed. (TNDOT1)

Landbridge: (See also Intermodal, Minibridge) An intermodal connection between two ocean carriers separated by a land mass, linked together in a seamless transaction by a land carrier. (MARAD1)

Landed Cost: The dollar per barrel price of crude oil at the port of discharge. Included are the charges associated with the purchase, transporting, and insuring of a cargo from the purchase point to the port of discharge. Not included are charges incurred at the discharge port (e.g., import tariffs or fees, wharfage charges, and demurrage charges). (DOE5)

Landed Weight: The weight of an aircraft providing scheduled and non-scheduled service of only property (including mail) in intrastate, interstate and foreign air transportation. (FAA11)

Landing Area: 1) Any locality either on land, water, or structures, including airports/heliports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. 2) That part of a movement area intended for the landing or takeoff of aircraft. (FAA4)

Landing Direction Indicator: A device which visually indicates the direction in which landings and takeoffs should be made. (FAA4)

Landing Distance Available (LDA): The runway length declared available for landing an airplane. (FAA12)

Landing Gear: Device that supports the front end of semitrailer when not attached to a tractor. (ATA1)

Landing Gear Extended Speed: The maximum speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown with the landing gear extended. (14CFR1)

Landing Gear Operating Speed: The maximum speed at which the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted. (14CFR1)

Landing Minimums: The minimum visibility prescribed for landing a civil aircraft while using an instrument approach procedure. The minimum applies with other limitations set forth in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91 with respect to the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) prescribed in the instrument approach procedures as follows: 1) Straight-in landing minimums. A statement of MDA and visibility, or DH and visibility, required for a straight-in landing on a specified runway, or 2) Circling minimums. A statement of MDA and visibility required for the circle-to-land maneuver. Descent below the established MDA or DH is not authorized during an approach unless the aircraft is in a position from which a normal approach to the runway of intended landing can be made and adequate visual reference to required visual cues is maintained. (FAA4)

Landing Place: A place for loading and unloading passengers or cargo to and from water vessels. (DOI4)

Landing Rights Airports: Any aircraft may land at one of these airports after securing prior permission to land from U.S. Customs. (FAA2)

Landing Roll: The distance from the point of touchdown to the point where the aircraft can be brought to a stop or exit the runway. (FAA4)

Landing Sequence: The order in which aircraft are positioned for landing. (FAA4)

Landing Signal: A prearranged signal which the towboats of some companies sound when approaching their dock. (TNDOT1)

Landscaping: (See also Brush Out) Colloquial term meaning to clear shore structure of brush and vegetation in order to obtain optimum range of visibility. (TNDOT1)

Lane: A prescribed course for ships or aircraft, or a strip delineated on a road to accommodate a single line of automobiles; not to be confused with the road itself. (DOI4)

Lane: A portion of a street or highway, usually indicated by pavement markings, that is intended for one line of vehicles. (TRB1)

Large Air Carrier: Scheduled and nonscheduled aircraft operating under Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 125, or 127. Note: Part 129 foreign air carriers are not included in the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident data base, nor are hour and departure data available for these air carriers. (FAA3)

Large Air Traffic Hub: A community enplaning 1.00 percent or more of the total enplaned passengers in all services and all operations for all communities within the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and other U.S. areas designated by the Federal Aviation Administration. (FAA2) (FAA14) (FAA15)

Large Aircraft: Aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff weight. (14CFR1)

Large Aircraft Commercial Operator: Commercial operator operating aircraft with 30 seats or more or a maximum payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or more. (FAA2)

Large Aircraft Commercial Operator: Commercial operator operating aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds maximum certificated takeoff weight. (FAA9)

Large Certificated Air Carrier: An air carrier holding a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity that 1) operates aircraft designed to have a maximum passenger seating capacity of more than 60 seats or 2) maximum payload capacity of more than 18,000 pounds, (FAA2) (FAA11)

Large Fleet: A fleet of 2,000 or more reportable vehicles, domestic or foreign for which accountability is held by a department, independent establishment, bureau, or a comparable organizational unit of that department or independent establishment. (GSA1)

Large Regional Carrier Group: Air carrier groups with operating revenues between $20,000,000 and $99,000,000. (BTS4) (BTS5) (BTS6) (FAA11)

Large Truck: Trucks over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating, including single unit trucks and truck tractors. (NHTSA3)

LAS: McCarran International Airport (FAA11)

LASH: Lighter Aboard Ship (MARAD1)

Lashing: A comparatively short manila line with an eye spliced in one end, used to moor barges and tows when passing through locks. Its average length is about 60 feet with sizes varying from 1 3/4 to 3 inches in circumference. The line is thrown somewhat in the manner of a lasso (hence the eye spliced) to catch a wall pin or bollard so as to snub the movement of barges and then moor them in the lock chamber. Also, any short length of line used to secure two barges end to end or side by side. (TNDOT1)

Last Assigned Altitude: The last altitude/flight level assigned by Air Traffic Control (ATC) and acknowledged by the pilot. (FAA4)

Latch Block: The lower extremity of a latch rod which engages with a square shoulder of the segment or quadrant to hold the lever in position. (49CFR236)

Latch Shoe: The casting by means of which the latch rod and the latch block are held to a lever of a mechanical interlocking machine. (49CFR236)

Lateral Dam: Usually a rock and brush structure constructed parallel with normal stream flow to train or confine the current to a definite channel. (TNDOT1)

Lateral Separation: The lateral spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by requiring operation on different routes or in different geographical locations. (FAA4)

Launching Ramp: A transportation structure used for launching boats. (DOI4)

LAWRS: Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Station (FAA16)

LAX: Los Angeles International Airport (FAA11)

Lay On the Air: Apply brakes. (ATA1)

Layover: Eight hours or more rest before continuing trip or any off-duty period away from home. (ATA1)

LB: Lighted Buoy (USCG5)

LBB: Lubbock International Airport (FAA11)

LCDR: Lieutenant Commander (USCG5)

LCF: Local Control Facility (FAA7)

LCL: Less Than Container Load (MARAD2)

LCV: Longer Combination-Unit Vehicle (FHWA10) (NHTSA5)

LDA: Landing Directional Aid (FAA2) (FAA17)

LDA: Landing Distance Available (FAA12)

LDA: Localizer Directional Aid (FAA4) (FAA7)

LDDV: Light Duty Diesel Vehicle (VDOT)

LDGV: Light Duty Gas Vehicle (VDOT)

LDIN: Lead-In-Light System (FAA4)

LDT: Light Displacement Ton (MARAD4)

Lead Barge: The head, or first, barge of a tow generally with a rake. (TNDOT1)

Lead Wall: (See also Guide Wall) The long wall of a lock, also known as a "guided wall," outside the confines of the lock chamber, usually the land wall in the case of older locks. (TNDOT1)

Leaded Motor Gasoline: (See also Gasoline) Contains more than 0.05 grams of lead per gallon or more than 0.005 grams of phosphorus per gallon. The actual lead content of any given gallon may vary. Premium and regular grades are included, depending on the octane rating also leaded gasohol. Blendstock is excluded until blending has been completed. Alcohol that is to be used in the blending of gasohol is also excluded. (DOE5)

Lease: Acquisition of a vehicle by an agency from a commercial firm, in lieu of government ownership, for a period of 60 continuous days or more. (GSA1)

Leased Property (Under Capital Leases): Total cost to the air carrier for all property obtained under leases that meet one or more of the following criteria; 1) The lease transfers ownership of the property to the lessee by the end of the lease term; 2) The lease contains a bargain purchase option; 3) The lease term is equal to 75 percent or more of the estimated economic life of the leased property; or 4) The present value at the beginning of the lease term of the minimum lease payments, excluding the portion of the payments representing executory costs such as insurance, maintenance and taxes to be paid by the lessor, including any profit thereon, equals or exceeds 90 percent of the excess of the fair value of the lease property to the lessor at the inception of the lease over any related investment tax credit retained by the lessor and expected to be realized by him. (BTS4)

Leasor: A person or firm that grants a lease. (MARAD1)

Left Bank: (See also Reflective Material, Right Bank) The left descending bank of a river. The side of the river marked by red buoys, white or red lights, and red reflective material. (TNDOT1)

Left-Hand Draft: Current which pulls tow to left. (TNDOT1)

Left-Hand Draft In This Set of Marks: Channel report term meaning that one should expect the tow to drift to the left while running this course. (TNDOT1)

Left-Hand Reef Makes Well In Toward Channel: Term indicating that an underwater sandbar is building in toward the channel. A condition requiring extra caution on the part of the pilot and possibly the need for a flanking maneuver if the channel is considerably constricted. (TNDOT1)

Legal Weight: The weight of the goods plus any immediate wrappings which are sold along with the goods, e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its contents. (TNDOT1)

LEM: Linear Electric Motor (TRB1)

Less Than Truckload (LTL): A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload rate. Usually less than 10,000 pounds and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments. (ATA2)

LEV: Low Emission Vehicle (VDOT)

Levee: (See also Lagoon, Lake) A built-up embankment on or back from the riverbank for the purpose of containing floodwater. (TNDOT1)

Level of Service: 1) A set of characteristics that indicate the quality and quantity of transportation service provided, including characteristics that are quantifiable and those that are difficult to quantify. 2) For highway systems, a qualitative rating of the effectiveness of a highway or highway facility in serving traffic, in terms of operating conditions. 3) For paratransit, a variety of measures meant to denote the quality of service provided, generally in terms of total travel time or a specific component of total travel time. 4) For pedestrians, sets of area occupancy classifications to connect the design of pedestrian facilities with levels of service. (TRB1)

LF: Low Frequency (FAA4)

LFR: Low Frequency Radio Range (14CFR1)

LGA: La Guardia Airport (FAA11)

License Plate Lamp: A lamp used to illuminate the license plate on the rear of a motor vehicle. (49CFR393)

Licensed Driver: Any person who holds a valid driver's license from any state. (FHWA3)

LIDAR: Light Detection and Ranging (FHWA14)

Lie Sheet: Driver's log book. (ATA1)

Lift Vessel: A vessel designed to be loaded or unloaded by moving the containers with a heavy crane. (TNDOT1)

Light Boat: A towboat without a tow. (TNDOT1)

Light Density Railroad: Railroads with 1200 or less train-miles per road mile. (49CFR245)

Light Duty Vehicle: Automobiles and light trucks combined. (DOE6)

Light Gun: A handheld directional light signaling device which emits a brilliant narrow beam of white, green, or red light as selected by the tower controller. The color and type of light transmitted can be used to approve or disapprove anticipated pilot actions where radio communication is not available. The light gun is used for controlling traffic operating in the vicinity of the airport and on the airport movement area. (FAA4)

Light Rail: A streetcar type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights of way, or exclusive rights of way. Service may be provided by step entry vehicles or by level boarding. (49CFR37)

Light Rail: An electric railway with a "light volume" traffic capacity compared to "heavy rail." Light rail may use shared or exclusive rights-of-way, high or low platform loading, and multi-car trains or single cars. Also known as "Streetcar", "Troller car", and "Tramway". (APTA1)


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