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2016 Annual and 4th Quarter Airline Financial Data

Press Release Number: 
BTS 23_17
Date: 
Tuesday, May 2, 2017
Media Contact: 
Dave Smallen, 202-366-5568

PDF | Excel

U.S. scheduled passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit of $13.5 billion in 2016, down from $24.8 billion in 2015, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reported today (Table 1). 

Figure 1. Systemwide U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Annual Net Income
(billions of dollars)

Table Version | Excel

Figure 1. Systemwide U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Annual Net Income

The 25 U.S. scheduled service passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit as a group for the seventh consecutive year.

In addition to the after-tax net profit of $13.5 billion based on net income reports, the scheduled service passenger airlines reported a $24.8 billion pre-tax operating profit in 2016, down from $28.0 billion in 2015. The airlines reported a pre-tax operating profit - as a group - for the eighth consecutive year (Tables 1, 4).

Net profit or loss and operating profit or loss are two different measures of airline financial performance. Net profit or loss includes non-operating income and expenses, nonrecurring items or income taxes. Operating profit or loss is calculated from operating revenues and expenses before taxes and other nonrecurring items.

Total operating revenue for the 25 U.S. scheduled passenger airlines in 2016 was $168.2 billion. Airlines collected $125.2 billion from fares, 74.5 percent of total 2016 operating revenue (Table 4).

Total operating expenses for all passenger airlines in 2016 were $143.3 billion, of which fuel costs accounted for $22.4 billion, or 15.6 percent, and labor costs accounted for $49.7 billion, or 34.7 percent (Table 4).

In 2016, passenger airlines collected a total of $4.2 billion in baggage fees, 2.5 percent of total operating revenue, and $2.9 billion from reservation change fees, 1.7 percent of total operating revenue. Fees are included for calculations of net income, operating revenue and operating profit or loss (Table 4).

Baggage fees and reservation change fees are the only ancillary fees paid by passengers that are reported to BTS as separate items. Other fees, such as revenue from seating assignments and on-board sales of food, beverages, pillows, blankets, and entertainment are combined in different categories and cannot be identified separately.

See airline financial data press releases and the airline financial databases  for historical data.

Domestic
From domestic operations, U.S. scheduled passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit of $9.8 billion in 2016, down from $18.0 billion in 2015 (Table 2). 

Figure 2. Domestic U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Annual Net Income
(billions of dollars)

Table Version | Excel

Figure 2. Domestic U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Annual Net Income

The 25 U.S. scheduled service passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit from domestic operations as a group for the fourth consecutive year.

In addition to the after-tax net profit of $9.8 billion based on net income reports, the scheduled service passenger airlines reported a $19.4 billion pre-tax operating profit from domestic operations in 2016, down from $20.8 billion in 2015. The airlines reported a pre-tax operating profit from domestic operations - as a group - for the eighth consecutive year (Table 2).

Total operating revenue from domestic operations for all U.S. passenger airlines in 2016 was $125.7 billion. Airlines collected $91.2 billion from fares, 72.6 percent of total 2016 operating revenue (Tables 2, 5).

Total operating expenses from domestic operations for the 25 passenger airlines in 2016 were $106.4 billion, of which fuel costs accounted for $15.2 billion, or 14.3 percent, and labor costs accounted for $36.0 billion, or 33.8 percent (Tables 2, 5).

In 2016, passenger airlines collected from domestic operations a total of $3.3 billion in baggage fees, 2.6 percent of total operating revenue, and $1.9 billion from reservation change fees, 1.5 percent of total operating revenue (Tables 2, 5).

International
The 17 U.S. scheduled passenger airlines that operate internationally reported an after-tax net profit of $3.8 billion in 2016 from their international operations, down from $6.8 billion in 2015 (Table 3).

Figure 3. International U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Annual Net Income
(billions of dollars)

Table Version | Excel

Figure 3. International U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Annual Net Income

The 17 U.S. scheduled service passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit from international operations as a group for the seventh consecutive year.

In addition to the after-tax net profit of $3.8 billion based on net income reports, the scheduled service passenger airlines reported a $5.5 billion pre-tax operating profit from international operations in 2016, down from $7.2 billion in 2015. The airlines reported a pre-tax operating profit from international operations - as a group - for the eighth consecutive year (Table 3).

Total operating revenue from international operations for the 17 U.S. passenger airlines in 2016 was $42.4 billion. Airlines collected $34.0 billion from fares, 80.2 percent of total 2016 operating revenue (Tables 3, 6).

Total operating expenses from international operations for all passenger airlines in 2016 were $37.0 billion, of which fuel costs accounted for $7.2 billion, or 19.4 percent, and labor costs accounted for $13.7 billion, or 37.2 percent (Tables 3, 6).

In 2016, passenger airlines collected from international operations a total of $875.5 million in baggage fees, 2.1 percent of total operating revenue, and $1.0 billion from reservation change fees, 2.4 percent of total operating revenue (Tables 3, 6).

Annual Margins for All Scheduled Passenger Airlines

All U.S. scheduled passenger airlines reported a combined net income margin of 8.1 percent in 2016, down from a net margin of 14.7 percent in 2015. Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue. These airlines reported an operating profit margin of 14.8 percent in 2016, up from 8.6 percent in 2015. Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue (Table 4).

4th Quarter Results for All Scheduled Passenger Airlines

U.S. scheduled passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit of $2.0 billion in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from $3.8 billion in the third quarter of 2016 and down from $6.9 billion in the fourth quarter of 2015 (Table 7). 

Figure 4. Systemwide U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Quarterly Net Income
(billions of dollars)

Table Version | Excel

Figure 4. Systemwide U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Quarterly Net Income

The 25 U.S. scheduled service passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit as a group for the 15th consecutive quarter.

In addition to the after-tax net profit of $2.0 billion based on net income reports, the scheduled service passenger airlines reported a $4.1 billion pre-tax operating profit in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from $7.2 billion in the third quarter of 2016 and down from $5.9 billion in the fourth quarter of 2015. The airlines reported a pre-tax operating profit - as a group - for the 23rd consecutive quarter (Tables 7, 10).

Total operating revenue for all U.S. passenger airlines in the October-December fourth-quarter of 2016 was $41.1 billion. Airlines collected $30.5 billion from fares, 74.1 percent of total fourth-quarter operating revenue (Table 10).

Total operating expenses for all passenger airlines in the fourth-quarter of 2016 were $37.0 billion, of which fuel costs accounted for $5.8 billion, or 15.8 percent, and labor costs accounted for $13.0 billion, or 35.0 percent (Table 10).

In the fourth quarter, scheduled passenger airlines collected a total of $1.0 billion in baggage fees, 2.5 percent of total operating revenue, and $661.0 million from reservation change fees, 1.6 percent of total operating revenue. Fees are included for calculations of net income, operating revenue and operating profit or loss (Table 10).

Domestic
From domestic operations, U.S. scheduled passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit of $1.8 billion in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from $2.6 billion in the third quarter of 2016 and down from $6.1 billion in the fourth quarter of 2015 (Table 8). 

Figure 5. Domestic U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Quarterly Net Income
(billions of dollars)

Table Version | Excel

Figure 5. Domestic U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Quarterly Net Income

The 25 U.S. scheduled service passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit from domestic operations as a group for the 15th consecutive quarter.

In addition to the after-tax net profit of $1.8 billion based on net income reports, the scheduled service passenger airlines reported a $3.5 billion pre-tax operating profit from domestic operations in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from $5.4 billion in the third quarter of 2016 and down from $4.6 billion in the fourth quarter of 2015. The airlines reported a pre-tax operating profit from domestic operations - as a group - for the 23rd consecutive quarter (Table 8).

Total operating revenue from domestic operations for all U.S. passenger airlines in the October-December fourth-quarter of 2016 was $31.6 billion. Airlines collected $22.6 billion from fares, 71.6 percent of total fourth-quarter operating revenue (Tables 8, 11).

Total operating expenses from domestic operations for all passenger airlines in the fourth-quarter of 2016 were $28.1 billion, of which fuel costs accounted for $4.0 billion, or 14.4 percent, and labor costs accounted for $9.5 billion, or 33.9 percent (Tables 8, 11).

In the fourth quarter, passenger airlines collected from domestic operations a total of $822 million in baggage fees, 2.6 percent of total operating revenue, and $439 million from reservation change fees, 1.4 percent of total operating revenue (Tables 8, 11).

International
The 17 U.S. scheduled passenger airlines that operate internationally reported an after-tax net profit of $244 million in the fourth quarter of 2016, from their international operations, down from $1.2 billion in the third quarter of 2016 and down from $784 million in the fourth quarter of 2015 (Table 9).

Figure 6. International U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Quarterly Net Income
(billions of dollars)

Table Version | Excel

Figure 6. International U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Quarterly Net Income

The 17 U.S. scheduled service passenger airlines reported an after-tax net profit from international operations as a group for the eighth consecutive quarter.

In addition to the after-tax net profit of $244 million based on net income reports, the scheduled service passenger airlines reported a $569 million pre-tax operating profit from international operations in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from $1.8 billion in the third quarter of 2016 and down from $1.3 billion in the fourth quarter of 2015. The airlines reported a pre-tax operating profit from international operations - as a group - for the 19th consecutive quarter (Table 9).

Total operating revenue from international operations for all U.S. passenger airlines in the October-December fourth-quarter of 2016 was $9.5 billion. Airlines collected $7.8 billion from fares, 82.5 percent of total fourth-quarter operating revenue (Tables 9, 12).

Total operating expenses from international operations for all passenger airlines in the fourth-quarter of 2016 were $8.9 billion, of which fuel costs accounted for $1.8 billion, or 20.3 percent, and labor costs accounted for $3.4 billion, or 38.6 percent (Tables 9, 12).

In the fourth quarter, passenger airlines collected from international operations a total of $207.0 million in baggage fees, 2.2 percent of total operating revenue, and $222 million from reservation change fees, 2.3 percent of total operating revenue (Tables 9, 12).

4th Quarter Margins for All Scheduled Passenger Airlines

All U.S. scheduled passenger airlines reported a combined net income margin of 4.9 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from a net margin of 17.0 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015. Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue. These airlines reported an operating profit margin of 10.0 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016, down from 14.5 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015. Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue (Table 10).

Reporting notes
Additional airline financial data can be found on the BTS website, including industry statistics for other individual low-cost and regional airlines. See tables for operating profit/loss, operating revenue and fuel cost and consumption. See the BTS financial databases for more detailed data.

By regulation, for the quarter ending Dec. 31, airlines that operate at least one aircraft that has more than 60 seats or the capacity to carry a payload of passengers, cargo and fuel weighing more than 18,000 pounds must report financial data to BTS by March 31. The airline filings are subject to a process of quality assurance and data validations before release to the public.

Revised carrier data and late data filings will be made available monthly on TranStats on the Monday following the second Tuesday of the month. All data are subject to revision. BTS will release first-quarter 2017 data on June 19.

 

Table 1. Annual U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Financial Reports

Reports from 25 airlines in 2016

(Millions of dollars)

  2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Dollar Change ($ in Millions) 2015-2016
Net Income 74.8 12,161.4 7,446.5 24,787.7 13,538.2 -11,250
Operating Profit/Loss 5,995.2 11,303.5 14,600.0 27,986.5 24,826.4 -3,160
Operating Revenue* 156,499.8 161,625.1 169,276.5 169,056.9 168,165.7 -891
Fares 116,869.1 121,361.3 127,455.4 127,060.9 125,244.9 -1,816
Baggage Fees 3,449.7 3,362.0 3,558.4 3,813.5 4,185.8 372
Reservation Change Fees 2,538.2 2,814.1 2,939.9 3,011.8 2,895.9 -116
Operating Expenses 150,504.6 150,321.6 154,676.6 141,070.4 143,339.3 2,269
Fuel 44,885.5 42,636.6 43,431.2 26,979.1 22,366.6 -4,613
Labor 37,179.0 38,050.0 40,760.0 45,487.0 49,712.7 4,226

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Passenger airline operating revenue includes four other categories. 1) Transport-related is revenue from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc). 2) Miscellaneous operating revenue includes pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees. 3) Cargo revenue from transporting cargo in the belly of aircraft. 4) Mail revenue from transporting mail in the belly of aircraft. See the P1.2 database http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295.

 

Table 2. Domestic Annual U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Financial Reports

Reports from 25 airlines in 2016

(Millions of dollars)

  2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Dollar Change ($ in Millions) 2015-2016
Net Income -403.2 7,772.2 5,741.4 18,032.5 9,762.9 -8,270
Operating Profit/Loss 3,771.6 7,307.8 10,789.5 20,807.7 19,371.1 -1,437
Operating Revenue* 111,137.5 114,650.9 120,831.2 122,543.9 125,746.6 3,203
Fares 80,865.8 83,967.9 89,257.7 90,956.6 91,234.5 278
Baggage Fees 2,691.6 2,612.0 2,777.4 2,979.6 3,310.3 331
Reservation Change Fees 1,610.5 1,788.0 1,868.9 1,926.7 1,870.3 -56
Operating Expenses 107,365.9 107,343.1 110,041.7 101,736.2 106,375.5 4,639
Fuel 29,409.4 27,677.0 28,057.4 17,726.7 15,204.0 -2,523
Labor 26,796.3 27,435.9 29,240.6 32,823.1 35,980.0 3,157

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Passenger airline operating revenue includes four other categories. 1) Transport-related is revenue from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc). 2) Miscellaneous operating revenue includes pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees. 3) Cargo revenue from transporting cargo in belly of aircraft. 4) Mail revenue from transporting mail in belly of aircraft. See the P1.2 database http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295.

 

Table 3. International Annual U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Financial Reports

Reports from 17 airlines in 2016

(Millions of dollars)

  2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Dollar Change ($ in Millions) 2015-2016
Net Income 478.0 4,389.2 1,705.0 6,755.1 3,775.3 -2,980
Operating Profit/Loss 2,223.6 3,995.7 3,810.5 7,178.8 5,455.3 -1,724
Operating Revenue* 45,362.3 46,974.2 48,445.3 46,513.0 42,419.1 -4,094
Fares 36,003.3 37,393.4 38,197.7 36,104.3 34,010.4 -2,094
Baggage Fees 758.2 750.0 781.0 833.9 875.5 42
Reservation Change Fees 927.7 1,026.1 1,071.0 1,085.0 1,025.6 -59
Operating Expenses 43,138.8 42,978.5 44,634.9 39,334.2 36,963.8 -2,370
Fuel 15,476.1 14,959.6 15,373.8 9,252.3 7,162.6 -2,090
Labor 10,382.7 10,614.1 11,519.4 12,663.9 13,732.7 1,069

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Passenger airline operating revenue includes four other categories. 1) Transport-related is revenue from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc). 2) Miscellaneous operating revenue includes pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees. 3) Cargo revenue from transporting cargo in belly of aircraft. 4) Mail revenue from transporting mail in belly of aircraft. See the P1.2 database http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295.

 

Table 4. Jan-Dec U.S. Scheduled Passenger Airlines Revenue, Expenses and Profits

Reports from 25 airlines in 2016

(millions of dollars)

  Jan-Dec 2015 Jan-Dec 2016 Change 2015-2016 % Change % of YTD 2016 Revenue or Expense Total
Operating Revenue          
Passenger Fares (scheduled/charter) 127,060.9 125,244.9 -1,816.0 -1.43 74.48
Cargo 2,890.1 2,629.2 -260.9 -9.03 1.56
Baggage 3,813.5 4,185.8 372.3 9.76 2.49
Reservation Changes 3,011.8 2,895.9 -115.9 -3.85 1.72
Transport-Related* 27,385.2 27,943.2 558.0 2.04 16.62
Other** 4,895.4 5,266.7 371.3 7.58 3.13
Total Operating Revenue*** 169,056.9 168,165.7 -891.2 -0.53 100.00
Operating Expense          
Fuel 26,979.1 22,366.6 -4,612.5 -17.10 15.60
Labor 45,487.0 49,712.7 4,225.7 9.29 34.68
Rentals 8,632.3 8,792.3 160.0 1.85 6.13
Depreciation & Amortization 7,512.5 8,748.3 1,235.8 16.45 6.10
Landing Fees 2,853.3 2,939.1 85.8 3.01 2.05
Maintenance Materials 2,520.5 2,467.6 -52.9 -2.10 1.72
Transport-Related* 18,172.5 17,995.4 -177.1 -0.97 12.55
Other**** 28,913.2 30,317.3 1,404.1 4.86 21.15
Total Operating Expense 141,070.4 143,339.3 2,268.9 1.61 100.00
Profits or Losses          
Operating Profit 27,986.5 24,826.4 -3,160.1 -11.29 N/A
Operating Margin# (%) 16.6 14.8 -1.8 N/A N/A
Nonoperating Income/(Expense)## -4,109.4 -3,299.6 809.8 -19.71 N/A
Pre-Tax Income 23,877.2 21,526.7 -2,350.5 -9.84 N/A
Income Tax Benefit/(Expense) 910.5 -7,988.5 -8,899.0 -977.38 N/A
Other Income/(Expense) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A
Net Income 24,787.7 13,538.2 -11,249.5 -45.38 N/A
Net Margin### (%) 14.7 8.1 -6.6 N/A N/A

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295 and P6 http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=291

* Transport-Related is revenue/expenses from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues and expenses from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc).

** Other revenue includes miscellaneous operating revenue (including pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees) and public service revenues subsidy.

*** Based on U.S. Department of Transportation accounting standards, Total Operating Revenues are overstated by code share revenues which are included in both the mainline Transport-Related Revenues and the code share Passenger Revenue. Code share revenues are expensed out in the mainline Transport-Related Expense to allow a true Operating Profit(Loss). This reporting may understate all components of operating revenue, including Passenger Revenue, as a percentage of Total Operating Revenue.

**** Other expense includes purchase of materials such as passenger food and other materials; and purchase of services such as advertising, communication, insurance, outside flight equipment maintenance, traffic commissions and other services.

# Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue

## Nonoperating Income and Expense includes interest on long-term debt and capital leases, other interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses, capital gains and losses and other income and expenses.

### Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue.

 

Table 5. Jan-Dec U.S. Scheduled Domestic Passenger Airlines Revenue, Expenses and Profits

Reports from 25 airlines in 2016

(millions of dollars)

  Jan-Dec 2015 Jan-Dec 2016 Change 2015-2016 % Change % of YTD 2016 Revenue or Expense Total
Operating Revenue          
Passenger Fares (scheduled/charter) 90,956.6 91,234.5 277.9 0.31 72.55
Cargo 994.6 907.3 -87.3 -8.78 0.72
Baggage 2,979.6 3,310.3 330.7 11.10 2.63
Reservation Changes 1,926.7 1,870.3 -56.4 -2.93 1.49
Transport-Related* 21,874.3 24,192.6 2,318.3 10.60 19.24
Other** 3,812.1 4,231.6 419.5 11.00 3.37
Total Operating Revenue*** 122,543.9 125,746.6 3,202.7 2.61 100.00
Operating Expense          
Fuel 17,726.7 15,204.0 -2,522.7 -14.23 14.29
Labor 32,823.1 35,980.0 3,156.9 9.62 33.82
Rentals 6,607.4 6,766.6 159.2 2.41 6.36
Depreciation & Amortization 5,369.1 6,174.2 805.1 15.00 5.80
Landing Fees 2,174.5 2,233.1 58.6 2.69 2.10
Maintenance Materials 1,819.2 1,860.2 41.0 2.25 1.75
Transport-Related* 14,959.5 16,719.4 1,759.9 11.76 15.72
Other**** 20,256.7 21,438.0 1,181.3 5.83 20.15
Total Operating Expense 101,736.2 106,375.5 4,639.3 4.56 100.00
Profits or Losses          
Operating Profit 20,807.7 19,371.1 -1,436.6 -6.90 N/A
Operating Margin# (%) 17.0 15.4 -1.6 N/A N/A
Nonoperating Income/(Expense)## -3,208.9 -2,901.0 307.9 -9.60 N/A
Pre-Tax Income 17,598.8 16,470.0 -1,128.8 -6.41 N/A
Income Tax Benefit/(Expense) 433.7 -6,707.1 -7,140.8 -1,646.48 N/A
Other Income/(Expense) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A
Net Income 18,032.5 9,762.9 -8,269.6 -45.86 N/A
Net Margin### (%) 14.7 7.8 -7.0 N/A N/A

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295 and P6 http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=291

* Transport-Related is revenue/expenses from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues and expenses from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc).

** Other revenue includes miscellaneous operating revenue (including pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees) and public service revenues subsidy.

*** Based on U.S. Department of Transportation accounting standards, Total Operating Revenues are overstated by code share revenues which are included in both the mainline Transport-Related Revenues and the code share Passenger Revenue. Code share revenues are expensed out in the mainline Transport-Related Expense to allow a true Operating Profit(Loss). This reporting may understate all components of operating revenue, including Passenger Revenue, as a percentage of Total Operating Revenue.

**** Other expense includes purchase of materials such as passenger food and other materials; and purchase of services such as advertising, communication, insurance, outside flight equipment maintenance, traffic commissions and other services.

# Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue

## Nonoperating Income and Expense includes interest on long-term debt and capital leases, other interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses, capital gains and losses and other income and expenses.

### Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue.

 

Table 6. Jan-Dec U.S. Scheduled International Passenger Airlines Revenue, Expenses and Profits

Reports from 17 airlines in 2016

(millions of dollars)

  Jan-Dec 2015 Jan-Dec 2016 Change 2015-2016 % Change % of YTD 2016 Revenue or Expense Total
Operating Revenue          
Passenger Fares (scheduled/charter) 36,104.3 34,010.4 -2,093.9 -5.80 80.18
Cargo 1,895.5 1,721.9 -173.6 -9.16 4.06
Baggage 833.9 875.5 41.6 4.99 2.06
Reservation Changes 1,085.0 1,025.6 -59.4 -5.47 2.42
Transport-Related* 5,510.9 3,750.6 -1,760.3 -31.94 8.84
Other** 1,083.4 1,035.1 -48.3 -4.46 2.44
Total Operating Revenue*** 46,513.0 42,419.1 -4,093.9 -8.80 100.00
Operating Expense          
Fuel 9,252.3 7,162.6 -2,089.7 -22.59 19.38
Labor 12,663.9 13,732.7 1,068.8 8.44 37.15
Rentals 2,024.9 2,025.7 0.8 0.04 5.48
Depreciation & Amortization 2,143.4 2,574.1 430.7 20.09 6.96
Landing Fees 678.8 706.0 27.2 4.01 1.91
Maintenance Materials 701.3 607.4 -93.9 -13.39 1.64
Transport-Related* 3,213.0 1,276.0 -1,937.0 -60.29 3.45
Other**** 8,656.6 8,879.3 222.7 2.57 24.02
Total Operating Expense 39,334.2 36,963.8 -2,370.4 -6.03 100.00
Profits or Losses          
Operating Profit 7,178.8 5,455.3 -1,723.5 -24.01 N/A
Operating Margin# (%) 15.4 12.9 -2.6 N/A N/A
Nonoperating Income/(Expense)## -900.5 -398.6 501.9 -55.74 N/A
Pre-Tax Income 6,278.4 5,056.7 -1,221.7 -19.46 N/A
Income Tax Benefit/(Expense) 476.8 -1,281.4 -1,758.2 -368.75 N/A
Other Income/(Expense) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A
Net Income 6,755.1 3,775.3 -2,979.8 -44.11 N/A
Net Margin### (%) 14.5 8.9 -5.6 N/A N/A

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295 and P6 http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=291

* Transport-Related is revenue/expenses from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues and expenses from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc).

** Other revenue includes miscellaneous operating revenue (including pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees) and public service revenues subsidy.

*** Based on U.S. Department of Transportation accounting standards, Total Operating Revenues are overstated by code share revenues which are included in both the mainline Transport-Related Revenues and the code share Passenger Revenue. Code share revenues are expensed out in the mainline Transport-Related Expense to allow a true Operating Profit(Loss). This reporting may understate all components of operating revenue, including Passenger Revenue, as a percentage of Total Operating Revenue.

**** Other expense includes purchase of materials such as passenger food and other materials; and purchase of services such as advertising, communication, insurance, outside flight equipment maintenance, traffic commissions and other services.

# Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue

## Nonoperating Income and Expense includes interest on long-term debt and capital leases, other interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses, capital gains and losses and other income and expenses.

### Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue.

 

Table 7. Quarterly U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Financial Reports

Reports from 25 airlines in 4Q 2016

(Millions of dollars)

  4Q 2015 1Q 2016 2Q 2016 3Q 2016 4Q 2016 Dollar Change 4Q2015-4Q2016
Net Income 6,891 3,056 4,649 3,825 2,010 -4,881
Operating Profit/Loss 5,887 5,605 7,873 7,248 4,102 -1,785
Operating Revenue* 40,525 39,151 43,505 44,406 41,103 578
Fares 30,168 29,008 32,462 33,325 30,450 282
Baggage Fees 958 983 1,073 1,101 1,029 71
Reservation Change Fees 715 749 755 731 661 -54
Operating Expenses 34,638 33,547 35,632 37,158 37,001 2,363
Fuel 5,819 4,860 5,566 6,096 5,844 24
Labor 11,555 11,798 12,213 12,748 12,955 1,400

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Passenger airline operating revenue includes four other categories. 1) Transport-related is revenue from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc). 2) Miscellaneous operating revenue includes pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees. 3) Cargo revenue from transporting cargo in belly of aircraft. 4) Mail revenue from transporting mail in belly of aircraft. See the P1.2 database http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295.

 

Table 8. Domestic Quarterly U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Financial Reports

Reports from 25 airlines in 4Q 2016

(Millions of dollars)

Domestic Operations 4Q 2015 1Q 2016 2Q 2016 3Q 2016 4Q 2016 Dollar Change 4Q2015-4Q2016
Net Income 6,107 2,072 3,328 2,599 1,766 -4,341
Operating Profit/Loss 4,622 4,292 6,105 5,442 3,533 -1,089
Operating Revenue* 30,024 28,727 32,463 32,935 31,622 1,597
Fares 22,356 21,359 23,650 23,598 22,628 272
Baggage Fees 744 773 848 868 822 78
Reservation Change Fees 462 481 483 468 439 -23
Operating Expenses 25,402 24,434 26,358 27,493 28,089 2,686
Fuel 3,913 3,323 3,762 4,080 4,038 125
Labor 8,493 8,530 8,767 9,172 9,512 1,019

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Passenger airline operating revenue includes four other categories. 1) Transport-related is revenue from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc). 2) Miscellaneous operating revenue includes pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees. 3) Cargo revenue from transporting cargo in belly of aircraft. 4) Mail revenue from transporting mail in belly of aircraft. See the P1.2 database http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295.

 

Table 9. International Quarterly U.S. Scheduled Service Passenger Airlines Financial Reports

Reports from 17 airlines in 4Q 2016

(Millions of dollars)

International Operations 4Q 2015 1Q 2016 2Q 2016 3Q 2016 4Q 2016 Dollar Change 4Q2015-4Q2016
Net Income 784 985 1,321 1,226 244 -540
Operating Profit/Loss 1,265 1,312 1,768 1,806 569 -695
Operating Revenue* 10,501 10,425 11,042 11,470 9,482 -1,019
Fares 7,813 7,650 8,812 9,727 7,822 9
Baggage Fees 214 210 225 233 207 -6
Reservation Change Fees 253 268 273 263 222 -31
Operating Expenses 9,236 9,112 9,274 9,665 8,913 -324
Fuel 1,907 1,537 1,804 2,016 1,806 -101
Labor 3,062 3,268 3,446 3,576 3,443 381

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Passenger airline operating revenue includes four other categories. 1) Transport-related is revenue from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc). 2) Miscellaneous operating revenue includes pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees. 3) Cargo revenue from transporting cargo in belly of aircraft. 4) Mail revenue from transporting mail in belly of aircraft. See the P1.2 database http://www.transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=295.

 

Table 10. Quarterly U.S. Scheduled Passenger Airlines Revenue, Expenses and Profits

Reports from 25 airlines in 4Q 2016

(millions of dollars)

  4Q 2015 4Q 2016 Change 2015-2016 % Change % of 4Q 2016 Revenue or Expense Total
Operating Revenue          
Passenger Fares (scheduled/charter) 30,168.1 30,449.6 281.5 0.93 74.08
Cargo 710.7 717.3 6.6 0.93 1.75
Baggage 957.8 1,029.0 71.2 7.43 2.50
Reservation Changes 715.0 660.9 -54.1 -7.57 1.61
Transport-Related* 6,700.9 6,949.2 248.3 3.71 16.91
Other** 1,272.7 1,297.3 24.6 1.93 3.16
Total Operating Revenue*** 40,525.2 41,103.3 578.1 1.43 100.00
Operating Expense          
Fuel 5,819.4 5,843.5 24.1 0.41 15.79
Labor 11,554.9 12,954.5 1,399.6 12.11 35.01
Rentals 2,163.4 2,188.2 24.8 1.15 5.91
Depreciation & Amortization 1,939.4 2,155.0 215.6 11.12 5.82
Landing Fees 694.3 712.2 17.9 2.58 1.92
Maintenance Materials 672.3 615.8 -56.5 -8.40 1.66
Transport-Related* 4,351.2 4,521.9 170.7 3.92 12.22
Other**** 7,543.5 8,010.0 466.5 6.18 21.65
Total Operating Expense 34,738.4 37,001.1 2,262.7 6.51 100.00
Profits or Losses          
Operating Profit 5,886.8 4,102.2 -1,784.6 -30.32 N/A
Operating Margin# (%) 14.5 10.0 -4.5 N/A N/A
Nonoperating Income/(Expense)## .-1295.6 -648.5 647.1 50.00 N/A
Pre-Tax Income 4,591.2 3,453.8 -1,137.4 -24.77 N/A
Income Tax Benefit/(Expense) 2,299.4 -1,444.3 -3,743.7 -162.81 N/A
Other Income/(Expense) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A
Net Income 6,890.7 2,009.5 -4,881.2 -70.84 N/A
Net Margin### (%) 17.0 4.9 -12.1 N/A N/A

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Transport-Related is revenue/expenses from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues and expenses from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc).

** Other revenue includes miscellaneous operating revenue (including pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees) and public service revenues subsidy.

*** Based on U.S. Department of Transportation accounting standards, Total Operating Revenues are overstated by code share revenues which are included in both the mainline Transport-Related Revenues and the code share Passenger Revenue. Code share revenues are expensed out in the mainline Transport-Related Expense to allow a true Operating Profit(Loss). This reporting may understate all components of operating revenue, including Passenger Revenue, as a percentage of Total Operating Revenue.

**** Other expense includes purchase of materials such as passenger food and other materials; and purchase of services such as advertising, communication, insurance, outside flight equipment maintenance, traffic commissions and other services.

# Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue

## Nonoperating Income and Expense includes interest on long-term debt and capital leases, other interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses, capital gains and losses and other income and expenses.

### Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue.

 

Table 11. Domestic Quarterly U.S. Scheduled Passenger Airlines Revenue, Expenses and Profits

Reports from 25 airlines in 4Q 2016

(millions of dollars)

  4Q 2015 4Q 2016 Change 2015-2016 % Change % of 4Q 2016 Revenue or Expense Total
Operating Revenue          
Passenger Fares (scheduled/charter) 22,355.5 22,627.8 272.3 1.22 71.56
Cargo 245.4 247.2 1.8 0.73 0.78
Baggage 744.0 821.6 77.6 10.43 2.60
Reservation Changes 462.0 439.3 -22.7 -4.91 1.39
Transport-Related* 5,209.4 6,428.6 1,219.2 23.40 20.33
Other** 1,008.1 1,057.0 48.9 4.85 3.34
Total Operating Revenue*** 30,024.4 31,621.5 1,597.1 5.32 100.00
Operating Expense          
Fuel 3,912.6 4,038.0 125.4 3.21 14.38
Labor 8,493.1 9,511.9 1,018.8 12.00 33.86
Rentals 1,675.4 1,721.4 46.0 2.75 6.13
Depreciation & Amortization 1,397.9 1,575.2 177.3 12.68 5.61
Landing Fees 536.9 553.6 16.7 3.11 1.97
Maintenance Materials 436.8 470.6 33.8 7.74 1.68
Transport-Related* 3,561.9 4,343.8 781.9 21.95 15.46
Other**** 5,387.7 5,874.1 486.4 9.03 20.91
Total Operating Expense 25,402.3 28,088.6 2,686.3 10.58 100.00
Profits or Losses          
Operating Profit 4,622.1 3,532.9 -1,089.2 -23.57 N/A
Operating Margin# (%) 15.4 11.2 -4.2 N/A N/A
Nonoperating Income/(Expense)## -1,067.8 -560.0 507.8 -47.56 N/A
Pre-Tax Income 3,554.3 2,973.0 -581.3 -16.35 N/A
Income Tax Benefit/(Expense) 2,552.8 -1,207.1 -3,759.9 -147.29 N/A
Other Income/(Expense) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A
Net Income 6,107.1 1,765.9 -4,341.2 -71.08 N/A
Net Margin### (%) 20.3 5.6 -14.8 N/A N/A

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Transport-Related is revenue/expenses from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues and expenses from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc).

** Other revenue includes miscellaneous operating revenue (including pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees) and public service revenues subsidy.

*** Based on U.S. Department of Transportation accounting standards, Total Operating Revenues are overstated by code share revenues which are included in both the mainline Transport-Related Revenues and the code share Passenger Revenue. Code share revenues are expensed out in the mainline Transport-Related Expense to allow a true Operating Profit(Loss). This reporting may understate all components of operating revenue, including Passenger Revenue, as a percentage of Total Operating Revenue.

**** Other expense includes purchase of materials such as passenger food and other materials; and purchase of services such as advertising, communication, insurance, outside flight equipment maintenance, traffic commissions and other services.

# Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue

## Nonoperating Income and Expense includes interest on long-term debt and capital leases, other interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses, capital gains and losses and other income and expenses.

### Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue.

 

Table 12. International Quarterly U.S. Scheduled Passenger Airlines Revenue, Expenses and Profits

Reports from 17 airlines in 4Q 2016

(millions of dollars)

  4Q 2015 4Q 2016 Change 2015-2016 % Change % of 4Q 2016 Revenue or Expense Total
Operating Revenue          
Passenger Fares (scheduled/charter) 7,812.6 7,821.8 9.2 0.12 82.49
Cargo 465.3 470.1 4.8 1.03 4.96
Baggage 213.8 207.4 -6.4 -2.99 2.19
Reservation Changes 253.0 221.6 -31.4 -12.41 2.34
Transport-Related* 1,491.5 520.6 -970.9 -65.10 5.49
Other** 264.6 240.3 -24.3 -9.18 2.53
Total Operating Revenue*** 10,500.8 9,481.8 -1,019.0 -9.70 100.00
Operating Expense          
Fuel 1,906.8 1,805.5 -101.3 -5.31 20.26
Labor 3,061.8 3,442.6 380.8 12.44 38.63
Rentals 488.0 466.8 -21.2 -4.34 5.24
Depreciation & Amortization 541.5 579.8 38.3 7.07 6.51
Landing Fees 157.4 158.6 1.2 0.76 1.78
Maintenance Materials 135.5 145.2 9.7 7.16 1.63
Transport-Related* 789.3 178.1 -611.2 -77.44 2.00
Other**** 2,155.8 2,135.9 -19.9 -0.92 23.97
Total Operating Expense 9,236.1 8,912.5 -323.6 -3.50 100.00
Profits or Losses          
Operating Profit 1,264.7 569.3 -695.4 -54.99 N/A
Operating Margin# (%) 12.0 6.0 -6.0 N/A N/A
Nonoperating Income/(Expense)## -227.8 -88.5 139.3 -61.15 N/A
Pre-Tax Income 1,036.9 480.8 -556.1 -53.63 N/A
Income Tax Benefit/(Expense) -253.4 -237.2 16.2 -6.39 N/A
Other Income/(Expense) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 N/A
Net Income 783.6 243.6 -540.0 -68.91 N/A
Net Margin### (%) 7.5 2.6 -4.9 N/A N/A

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Form 41; Schedules P1.2 and P6

* Transport-Related is revenue/expenses from services which grow from and are incidental to the air transportation services performed by the air carrier. Examples are in-flight onboard sales (food, liquor, pillows, etc), code share revenues, revenues and expenses from associated businesses (aircraft maintenance, fuel sales, restaurants, vending machines, etc).

** Other revenue includes miscellaneous operating revenue (including pet transportation, sale of frequent flyer award miles to airline business partners and standby passenger fees) and public service revenues subsidy.

*** Based on U.S. Department of Transportation accounting standards, Total Operating Revenues are overstated by code share revenues which are included in both the mainline Transport-Related Revenues and the code share Passenger Revenue. Code share revenues are expensed out in the mainline Transport-Related Expense to allow a true Operating Profit(Loss). This reporting may understate all components of operating revenue, including Passenger Revenue, as a percentage of Total Operating Revenue.

**** Other expense includes purchase of materials such as passenger food and other materials; and purchase of services such as advertising, communication, insurance, outside flight equipment maintenance, traffic commissions and other services.

# Operating margin is the operating profit or loss as a percentage of operating revenue

## Nonoperating Income and Expense includes interest on long-term debt and capital leases, other interest expense, foreign exchange gains and losses, capital gains and losses and other income and expenses.

### Net margin is the net income or loss as a percentage of operating revenue.