Table 1-1 - Major Elements of the Transportation System: 1997

Table 1-1 - Major Elements of the Transportation System: 1997

Mode Major elements Components
Highways1 Public roads and streets; automobiles, vans, trucks, motorcycles,taxis, and buses operated by transportation companies, other businesses, governments, and households; garages, truck terminals,and other facilities for motor vehicles Public roads2
46,068 miles of Interstate highways
112,855 miles of other National Highway System (NHS) roads
3,785,674 miles of non-NHS roads
Vehicles and use
130 million cars, driven 1.5 trillion miles
70 million light trucks, driven 0.9 trillion miles
7.1 million commercial trucks with 6 tires or more, driven 0.2 trillion miles
697,548 buses, driven 6.8 billion miles
3.8 million motorcycles, driven 10.1 billion miles
Mode Major elements Components
Air Airways and airports; airplanes, helicopters, and other flying craft for carrying passengers and cargo Airports
5,357 public-use airports 12,988 private-use airports
Airports serving large certificated carriers3
29 large hubs (75 airports), 431 million enplaned passengers
32 medium hubs (57 airports), 92 million enplaned passengers
58 small hubs (75 airports), 37 million enplaned passengers
603 nonhubs (840 airports), 15 million enplaned passengers
7,616 certificated air carrier aircraft,4 4.9 billion domestic miles flown5
192,000 active general aviation aircraft,6 3.9 billion statute-miles flown
Passenger and freight companies 5
91 carriers
549 million domestic revenue passenger enplanements
13.6 billion domestic revenue ton-miles of freight shipments
Certificated air carriers (domestic and international)
Majors: 13 carriers, 598,000 employess, 527 million revenue passenger enplanements
Nationals: 31 carriers, 49,000 employees, 68 million revenue passenger enplanements
Regionals: 47 carriers, 12,000 employess, approximately 10 million revenue passenger enplanements
Mode Major elements Components
Rail7 Freight railroads and Amtrak Miles of road operated
121,670 miles by major (Class I) railroads
21,466 miles by regional railroads
28,149 by local railroads
22,000 miles by Amtrak (FY 1998)
1.3 million freight cars
19,684 freight locomotives in service
Freight railroad firms
Class I: 9 systems, 177,981 employees, 1.3 trillion ton-miles of freight carried
Regional: 34 companies, 10,995 employees
Local: 507 companies, 11,741 employees
Passenger (Amtrak, FY 1998)
24,000 employees, 1,962 passenger cars
345 locomotives, 21.1 million passengers carried
Transit8 Commuter trains, heavy-rail (rapid rail) and light-rail (streetcar) transit systems, local transit buses, vans and other demand responsive vehicles, and ferry boats Vehicles
54,946 buses, 17.5 billion passenger-miles
11,290 heavy and light rail, 13.1 billion passenger-miles
5,425 commuter rail, 8.0 billion passenger-miles
87 ferries, 254 million passenger-miles
19,820 demand responsive, 0.5 billion passenger-miles
6,813 other vehicles, 0.8 billion passenger-miles
Employment in urban transit: 326,000
Mode Major elements Components
Water Navigable rivers, canals, the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Seaway, Intracoastal Waterway, and ocean shipping channels; ports; commercial ships and barges, fishing vessels, and recreational boating U.S.-flag fleet
Great Lakes: 737 vessels,9 62 billion ton-miles (domestic commerce)10
Inland: 33,668 vessels,9 294 billion ton-miles (domestic commerce)10
Ocean: 7,014 vessels,9 350 billion ton-miles (domestic commerce)10
Recreational boats: 12.3 million11
Cruise ships: 122 serving North American ports, 5.4 million passengers12
Great Lakes: 340 terminals, 483 berths
Inland: 1,812 terminals
Ocean: 1,574 terminals, 2,675 berths
Mode Major elements Components
Pipeline Crude oil, petroleum product, and natural gas lines Oil (1996)14
Crude lines: 114,000 miles, 338 billion ton-miles transported
Product lines: 86,500 miles, 281 billion ton-miles transported, 160 companies regulated by FERC, 14,500 employess
American Gas Association estimates15
Transmission: 256, 000 miles of pipe
Distribution: 955,300 miles of pipe, 198 companies, 155,000 employees

1 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: 1998), tables HM-20 and HM-14.

2 Does not include Puerto Rico.

3 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Air Carriers,12 Months Ending December 31, 1997 (Washington, DC: 1998).

4 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, personal communication. Note: This total excludes aircraft used as on-demand air taxis.

5 U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Statistics Monthly (Washington, DC: 1998). Note: These data are for large certificated carriers.

6 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, General Aviation and Air Taxi Activity Survey, Calendar Year 1997, FAA-APO-99-4 (Washington, DC: 1999).

7 Unless otherwise noted, all freight rail data from Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts: 1997 (Washington, DC: 1998); all Amtrak information from National Railroad Passenger Corp., Amtrak Annual Report 1997 (Washington, DC: 1998), statistical appendix.

8 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, National Transit Database 1997.

9 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Support Center, 1997 Vessel Characteristics Database (Fort Belvoir, VA: 1999).

10 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Support Center, Waterborne Commerce of the United States 1997 (Fort Belvoir, VA: 1999). Domestic ton-miles include commerce among the 48 contiguous states, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Wake Island, and the U.S. Trust Territories. Domestic total does not include cargo carried on general ferries, coal and petroleum products loaded from shore facilities directly into bunkers of vessels for fuel, and insignificant amounts of government materials (less than 100 tons) moved on government-owned equipment in support of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects. Fish are also excluded from internal (inland) domestic traffic.

11 U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Boating Statistics (Washington, DC: 1998).

12 Ship: U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, Office of Statistical and Economic Analysis, personal communication, 1999; Passengers: Cruise Industry News 1998 Annual. Edited by O. Mathisen. New York, NY: Oivind and Angela Mathisen.

13 U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, A Report to Congress on the Status of the Public Ports of the United States: 1996­1997 (Washington, DC: 1998).

14 Eno Foundation, Inc., Transportation in America, 1998 (Washington, DC: 1999).

15 American Gas Association, Gas Facts (Washington, DC: 1998).

KEY: FERC = Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; FY = fiscal year.

SOURCE: Unless otherwise noted, U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics 1998, available at