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P&D: Pick up and delivery. (FMCSA2)

P&R: Planning and Research (FHWA19)

P.L.: Public Law (DOT1)

P.L. 93-638 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, as amended: The response by Congress, in recognition of the unique obligation of the United States, to the strong expression of the Indian people for self-determination, assuring maximum Indian participation in the direction of education as well as other Federal services for Indian communities so as to render such programs and services more responsive to the needs and desires of Indian communities. (FHWA21)

P.M. Peak Period: The period in the afternoon or evening when additional services are provided to handle higher passenger volumes. The period begins when normal headways are reduced and ends when headways are returned to normal. (FTA1)

P2R2: Preferred Route Reduction Program (FAA20)

PA: Project Authorization (FAA20)

PAAC: Port Authority of Allegheny County (FTA5)

PABX: Private Automated Branch Exchange (FAA20)

PAC: Presidential Advisory Committee or Political Action Committee (FHWA18)

PAC: Pacific Region (USTTA1)

Package Freight: In the historical tables, designates cargo consisting of miscellaneous packages generally unidentifiable as to commodity and carried only on vessels licensed by the respective Authorities in Canada and the United States. This commodity classification is no longer applicable. (SLSDC1)

Packaging: A receptacle and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function in conformance with the minimum packing requirements of 49CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter C. (49CFR171)

Packet: A boat, usually a coastal or river steamer, that plies a regular route, carrying passengers, freight, and mail. (TNDOT1)

Packing and Crating: Establishments primarily engaged in packing, crating, and otherwise preparing goods for shipping. (BOC1)

Packing Group: A grouping according to the degree of danger presented by hazardous materials. Packing Group I indicates great danger; Packing Group II, medium danger; Packing Group III, minor danger. (49CFR171)

PAD: Petroleum Administration for Defense (DOE7)

PAD: Packet Assembler/Disassembler (FAA20)

PADS: Planned Arrival and Departure System (FAA17)

PAHC: Pan American Highway Congress (FHWA18)

Paid Storage: A vehicle on assignment to a customer agency but temporarily out of service (usually a seasonally used vehicle). (GSA2)

Paid-In Capital: Invested capital from stock subscribed or issued at a par or stated value (or the subscription value in the case of stock without par value) for preferred stock and common stock. (BTS4)

Pajama Wagon: Sleeper tractor. (ATA1)

PAL: Philippines Airlines (FAA18)

Pallet: A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. (MARAD2)

PAM: Peripheral Adapter Module (FAA19)

PAMRI: Peripheral Adapter Module Replacement Item (FAA20)

Pan Pan: The international radio-telephony urgency signal. When repeated three times, indicates uncertainty or alert followed by the nature of the urgency. (FAA4)

PanAm: Pan American (BTS10)

Pancake: Brake diaphragm housing. (ATA1)

Panel Body: Small, fully enclosed truck body often used for small package delivery. (ATA1)

PANS: Procedures for Air Navigation Services (FAA20)

PAPI: Precision Approach Path Indicator (FAA20)

PAR: Police Accident Report (BTS11)

PAR: Performance and Accountability Report (DOT1)

PAR: Preferential Arrival Route (FAA2)

PAR: Precision Approach Radar (FAA20)

PAR: Preferential Arrival Route (FAA20)

Parachute: A device used or intended to be used to retard the fall of a body or object through the air. (14CFR1)

Parallel ILS Approaches: Approaches to parallel runways by Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft which, when established inbound toward the airport on the adjacent final approach courses, are radar separated by at least 2 miles. (FAA4)

Parallel Offset Route: A parallel track to the left or right of the designated or established airway/route. Normally associated with Area Navigation (RNAV) operations. (FAA4)

Parallel Runway: Two or more runways at the same airport whose centerlines are parallel. In addition to runway numbers, parallel runways are designated as L (left) and R (right) or, if three parallel runways exist, L (left), C (center), and R (right). (FAA4)

Paratransit: Comparable transportation service required by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route transportation systems. (49CFR37) (APTA1)

Paratransit: 1) Comparable transportation service required by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route transportation systems. (49CFR37) (APTA1) 2) A variety of smaller, often flexibly scheduled-and-routed transportation services using low-capacity vehicles, such as vans, to operate within normal urban transit corridors or rural areas. These services usually serve the needs of persons that standard mass-transit services would serve with difficulty, or not at all. Often, the patrons include the elderly and persons with disabilities. (FHWA21)

PARIS: Passenger Routing and Information System (FTA4)

Park: A place or area set aside for recreation or preservation of a cultural or natural resource. (DOI4)

Park and Ride: An access mode to transit in which patrons drive private automobiles or ride bicycles to a transit station, stop, or carpool/vanpool waiting area and park the vehicle in the area provided for the purpose. They then ride the transit system or take a car-or vanpool to their destinations. (TRB1)

Park and Ride Lot: Designated parking area for automobile drivers who then board transit vehicles from these locations. (APTA1)

Parking Area: An area set aside for the parking of motor vehicles. (DOI4)

Parking Brake: A mechanism designed to prevent the movement of a stationary motor vehicle. (49CFR571)

Parking Brake System: A brake system used to hold a vehicle stationary. (49CFR393)

Parkway: A highway that has full or partial access control, is usually located within a park or a ribbon of park-like developments, and prohibits commercial vehicles. Buses are not considered commercial vehicles in this case. (FHWA2)

Participating Agency: A federal department or agency which transferred (consolidated) vehicles to the Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS). (GSA2)

Particulate Matter: Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) consists of airborne solid particles and liquid droplets. Particulate matter may be in the form of fly ash, soot, dust, fog, fumes, etc. These particles are classified as "coarse" if they are smaller than 10 microns, or "fine" if they are smaller than 2.5 microns. Coarse airborne particles are produced during grinding operations, or from the physical disturbance of dust by natural air turbulence processes, such as wind. Fine particles can be a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, such as diesel and bus engines. Fine particles can easily reach remote lung areas, and their presence in the lungs is linked to serious respiratory ailments such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and aggravated coughing. Exposure to these particles may aggravate other medical conditions such as heart disease and emphysema and may cause premature death. In the environment, particulate matter contributes to diminished visibility and particle deposition (soiling). (FHWA21)

Particulate Matter Emissions: Particulate matter (PM) is the general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. They originate from many differ-ent stationary and mobile sources as well as from natural sources, including fuel combustion from motor vehicles, power generation, and industrial facilities, as well as from residential fire-places and wood stoves. Fine particles are most closely associated with such health effects as increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for heart and lung disease, increased respiratory symptoms and disease, decreased lung function, and even premature death. (FHWA21)

Particulates: Carbon particles formed by partial oxidation and reduction of hydrocarbon fuel. Also included are trace quantities of metal oxides and nitrides originating from engine wear, component degradation, and inorganic fuel additives. (BTS14)

Parts Per Million: A measure of air pollutant concentrations. (FHWA21)

PAS: Project Assignment Sheet (FAA20)

PAS: Principal Arterial System (FHWA19)

PAS: Passive Alcohol Sensors (NHTSA7)

PASS: Professional Airway Systems Specialists (FAA20)

Pass: Any one of several distributary channels near the mouth of the Mississippi River. (TNDOT1)

Pass Cells: Piers on each side of the navigable pass of a dam. (TNDOT1)

Pass Sill Gage: Gage indicating depth through navigable pass. (TNDOT1)

Pass-Through Funds: Operating financial assistance passed through to other transit agencies that have no relationship to the directly operated and/or purchased transportation services provided by the designated recipient. (FTA1)

Passenger: A person who is on, boarding, or alighting from a railroad car for the purpose of travel, without participating in its operation. (FRA3)

Passenger: Any occupant of a motor vehicle who is not a driver. (NHTSA3)

Passenger Automobile: A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation) manufactured primarily for use in the transportation of not more than 10 individuals. (49CFR523)

Passenger Car: A unit of rolling equipment intended to provide transportation for members of the general public, including self-propelled cars designed to carry baggage, mail, express and passengers. (49CFR223)

Passenger Car: A motor vehicle designed primarily for carrying passengers on ordinary roads, includes convertibles, sedans, and stations wagons. (BTS11)

Passenger Car Equivalence: The representation of larger vehicles, such as buses, as equal to a quantity of automobiles (passenger cars) for use in level of service and capacity analyses. (TRB1)

Passenger Count: A count of the passengers on a vehicle or who use a particular facility. (TRB1)

Passenger Enplanements: The total number of passengers boarding an aircraft. (BTS6)

Passenger Facility Charge: Public agencies controlling a commercial service airport can charge enplaning passengers using the airport a $1, $2, or $3 facility charge. Public agencies must apply to the FAA and meet certain requirements in order to impose a PFC. (FAA11)

Passenger Flow: The number of passengers who pass a given location in a specified direction during a given period. (TRB1)

Passenger Load Factor: The percent that revenue passenger miles are of available seat-miles in revenue passenger services, representing the proportion of aircraft seating capacity that is actually sold and utilized. (BTS6) (FAA11)

Passenger Mile: One passenger transported one mile. Total passenger miles are computed by summation of the products of the aircraft miles flown on each inter-airport flight stage multiplied by the number of passengers carried on that flight stage. (AIA1) (FAA11) (NTSB1)

Passenger Miles: The total number of miles traveled by passengers on transit vehicles; determined by multiplying the number of unlinked passenger trips times the average length of their trips. (APTA1)

Passenger Per Aircraft Mile: The average number of passengers carried per aircraft in revenue passenger services, derived by dividing the total revenue passenger-miles by the total aircraft miles flown in revenue passenger services. (BTS6)

Passenger Revenue: 1) Rail: Revenue from the sale of tickets. 2) Air: Revenues from the transport of passengers by air. 3) Transit: Fares, transfer, zone, and park-and-ride parking charges paid by transit passengers. Prior to 1984, fare revenues collected by contractors operating transit services are not included. (BTS11)

Passenger Revenue Ton Mile: One ton of revenue passenger weight (including all baggage) transported one mile. The passenger weight standard for both domestic and international operations is 200 pounds. (BTS5) (BTS6)

Passenger Service: Both intercity rail passenger service and commuter rail passenger service. (49CFR245)

Passenger Service Expenses: Costs of activities contributing to comfort, safety, and convenience of passengers while in flight and when flights are interrupted. Includes salaries and expenses of flight attendants and passenger food expenses. (BTS4)

Passenger Vehicle: A vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or less which includes passenger cars, light pickup trucks, light vans, and utility vehicles. (NHTSA4)

Passenger Vehicle Crash: A motor vehicle crash involving at least one passenger vehicle. (NHTSA4)

Passenger Vessels: A vessel designed for the commercial transport of passengers. (BTS11)

Passenger-Carrying Aircraft: An aircraft that carries any person other than a crewmember, company employee, an authorized representative of the United States, or a person accompanying the shipment. (49CFR171)

Passenger-Carrying Volume: The sum of the front seat volume and, if any, rear seat volume, as defined in 40 CFR 600.315, in the case of automobiles to which that term applies. With respect to automobiles to which that term does not apply, "passenger-carrying volume" means the sum in cubic feet, rounded to the nearest 0.1 cubic feet, of the volume of a vehicle's front seat and seats to the rear of the front seat, as applicable, calculated in 49 CFR 523.2 with the head room, shoulder room, and leg room dimensions determined in accordance with the procedures outlined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J1100a, Motor Vehicle Dimensions (Report of Human Factors Engineering Committee, Society of Automotive Engineers, approved September 1973 and last revised September 1975). (49CFR523)

Passenger-Mile: 1) Air: One passenger transported 1 mile; passenger-miles for one interairport flight are calculated by multiplying aircraft miles flow by the number of passengers carried on the flight. The total passenger-miles for all flights is the sum of passenger-miles for all interairport flights. 2) Auto: One passenger traveling 1 mile; e.g., one car transporting two passengers 4 miles results in eight passenger-miles. 3) Transit: The total number of miles traveled by transit passengers; e.g., one bus transporting five passengers 3 miles results in 15 passenger-miles. (BTS11)

Passenger-Miles Traveled: One person traveling the distance of one mile. Total passenger-miles traveled by all persons. (DOE6)

Passengers On Trains (Class C): Persons who are on, boarding, or alighting from railroad cars for the purpose of travel. (FRA2)

Passing Daymark: A rectangular or triangular daymark used on lights which are intended for position reference only and are not to be steered on. (TNDOT1)

PATH: Program for Advanced Transit and Highway (FHWA14)

PATH: Program on Advanced Technology for the Highway (FHWA19)

PATH: Port Authority Trans-Hudson (New York City/New Jersey) (FTA4)

Patron: A person who intends to use or has used the transit system and is on property affiliated with the transit system. An employee is not a patron. (FTA1)

PATS: Precision Automated Tracking System (FAA19)

PATS: Precision Approach Tracking System (FAA20)

PATWAS: Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (FAA20)

Paved Road Surface: Bituminous, concrete, brick, block, and other special surfaces. (FHWA2)


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