Operating Administration Funding Details

Operating Administration Funding Details

This section of the RD&T Annual Funding Report presents additional information on RD&T funding in each of the Department's research-performing administrations, including 3-year funding trends, earmarking, and support for DOT strategic goals. Detailed funding tables are in Appendix A and Appendix B.

Federal Aviation Administration

The FAA's mission is to provide safe and efficient aviation and commercial space transportation systems. Key elements are the regulation of civil aviation and commercial space transportation to promote safety and the safe and efficient use of airports and airspace by civil and military users. This broad mission requires an extensive RD&T program carried out in cooperation with industry and other Federal agencies. Program components include research in space and air traffic system technology, aviation weather products, airport technology, aircraft safety, commercial space transportation safety, human factors, and mitigation of noise and emissions.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 4 shows FAA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

As shown, FAA's FY 2008 RD&T request is down $33 million (10 percent) compared to FY 2006 but up $23 million (9 percent) from FY 2007. Facilities and Equipment (F&E) RD&T is down $52 million (33 percent) compared to FY 2006 and Operations $3.5 million (26 percent). Funding for Research, Engineering and Development (RE&D) is virtually flat compared to FY 2006, though within that program FAA is requesting an increase for Wake Turbulence research ($10.8 million for FY 2008 compared to $2.3 million in FY 2006). Airport RD&T is also up ($28.7 million compared to $9.9 million in FY 2006), in large part reflecting funding for the new Airport Technology Research Program.

RD&T Earmarking

Earmarking of FAA's FY 2006 RD&T budget is shown in Figure 5. Overall, 13 percent of FAA's RD&T budget was earmarked. As a percentage of the total program budgets, earmarks accounted for approximately 10 percent of RE&D and 18 percent of RD&T-related F&E.

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 6 shows how FAA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT strategic goals. As shown in the figure, the majority of FAA RD&T will support improved safety (64 percent), followed by reduced congestion (23 percent), organizational excellence (8 percent), and environmental stewardship (5 percent). Details for FAA RD&T programs are in Appendix B.

FAA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Aircraft Safety. Perfected a procedure that will accelerate the discovery of ultra-fire-resistant composites; assessed 20 nondestructive inspection techniques for detecting small hidden cracks; and developed a tool to check aircraft electrical wire interconnect systems for structural and fire hazards.

Human Factors. Assessed the benefits of and human factors associated with providing weather information on air traffic controller displays; developed an alternative method of pre-screening controller job applicants; and created a software tool to simplify the development of flight training simulations.

Weather Program. Implemented a terminal convective weather forecast product within the Integrated Terminal Weather System; upgraded FAA's Current Icing Potential product; and invested in new storm detection and nowcasting capabilities.

Joint Planning and Development Office. Conducted an initial financial analysis of the air traffic management portion of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Operational Vision.

Wake Turbulence. Completed a detailed proposal for modifying wake turbulence mitigation procedures used for dependent instrument landing system approaches to closely spaced parallel runways.

Environment and Energy. Continued support for FAA's PARTNER Center of Excellence, which developed improved methods of assessing the costs and benefits of mitigation strategies and conducted research on the health impacts of aircraft emissions.

FY 2008 Highlights

Aircraft Safety. A total request of $44.4 million, including research to develop improvements in fuel tank inerting systems, conduct full-scale tests to assess the need for fuselage composite-material fire tests, and demonstrate fire-proof cabin components.

Human Factors. $26.7 million to initiate air–ground integration simulations, assess the use of advanced weather products at En Route controller workstations, and continue validation of FAA's Air Traffic Selection and Training test.

Weather Program. $16.9 million to implement operationally an in-flight icing severity forecast product, evaluate Northeast Corridor ceiling and visibility forecasts, and obtain approval for experimental use of a 6-hour national convective weather forecast product.

Joint Planning and Development Office. $14.3 million to begin implementation of the NextGen Integrated National Plan and to coordinate aviation and aeronautics research.

Wake Turbulence. $10.8 million to develop enhanced tools to evaluate the potential of wake turbulence encounters resulting from the introduction of airspace-efficient routes, air traffic control procedural changes, and new aircraft designs.

Environment and Energy. $15.5 million to assess the benefits of noise- and emission-reduction technologies and health effects associated with aircraft emissions.

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). $3.3 million for a new program to assess the potential hazards of UAS operations in the National Airspace System.

Federal Highway Administration

The FHWA's mission is to improve mobility on our Nation's highways through national leadership, innovation, and program delivery. One of the agency's key roles is to be an innovator for a better future. Toward this end, FHWA provides leadership, expertise, and resources to continually improve the quality of the highway system and its intermodal connections. Cooperating with States and other partners, the agency coordinates Federal highway programs and conducts supporting research in highway safety, pavement and structures, congestion relief, planning, and the environment. Among the agency's major highway programs are the Federal-Aid Highway Program, which provides financial assistance to States to construct and improve the National Highway System, urban and rural roads, and bridges, and the Federal Lands Highway Program, which provides access to and within national forests, national parks, Indian reservations, and other public lands.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 7 shows FHWA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

The FHWA's FY 2008 request is up 16 percent compared to FY 2006, from $513 to $593 million, reflecting the funding levels authorized in SAFETEA-LU.1 There is virtually no change in the FY 2008 request from FY 2007. Of the total for FY 2008, $196 million (33 percent) is for Surface Transportation Research, evelopment, and Deployment (STRDD). Other supported programs include ITS ($110 million) and University Research ($70 million), both administered by RITA, and Training and Education ($27 million). Twenty-nine percent of the FY 2008 budget ($172 million) reflects the share of State Planning and Research apportionments that States must allocate for RD&T.

RD&T Earmarking

Earmarking of FHWA's FY 2006 RD&T budget is shown in Figure 8. Earmarks affected STRDD (43 percent); ITS (7 percent); and University Research (60 percent).

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 9 shows how FHWA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT goals. The request will support all goals, with an emphasis on reduced congestion (72 percent) and safety (18 percent). Other supported goals include organizational excellence (5 percent); environmental stewardship (4 percent); global connectivity (1 percent); and security, preparedness, and response (less than 1 percent). Additional details are in Appendix B.

FHWA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Infrastructure. Developed an enhanced version of DataPave Online, a web application that contains all reusable Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) data, and a new LTPP Community of Practice website.

Planning, Environment, and Real Estate. Developed a comprehensive website and implementation strategy for the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP), newly authorized in SAFETEA-LU.

Operations. Completed a reduced-scale version of the Adaptive Control System (ACS), ACS "Lite"; a new release of Winter Weather Maintenance Decision Support software; and a handbook on coordinated freeway and arterial management.

Highway Safety. Developed a Digital Highway Measurement System to collect highly accurate measures of roadway safety features and infrastructure conditions.

Exploratory Advanced Research. Initiated a program to identify fundamental research and breakthrough technologies that could be exploited through this newly established program.

Future Strategic Highway Research Program—SHRP II. Signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to establish the program; technical advisory committees and expert working groups developed a revised research plan and an initial set of requests for proposals.

FY 2008 Highlights

Infrastructure. A total request of $66.4 million—$40.9 million for pavements, including the LTPP, and $25.5 million for bridges and structures.

Planning, Environment, and Real Estate. $19.5 million for the STEP and other initiatives authorized in SAFETEA-LU that will develop a better understanding of the complex relationship between surface transportation and the environment.

Operations. $7.8 million for solutions to mitigate the impacts of recurring congestion and to deal more effectively with non-recurring events.

Highway Safety. $13.6 million for safety RD&T with an emphasis on four core areas: strategic approach to safety, roadway departure crashes, intersection crashes, and pedestrian and bicycle safety.

Exploratory Advanced Research. $12.2 million for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for dramatic breakthroughs in surface transportation.

Future Strategic Highway Research Program—SHRP II. $44.7 million to fund research in the four critical areas identified by the NAS: renewal, safety, reliability, and capacity

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

The FMCSA's mission is to reduce the number and severity of commercial motor vehicle crashes. The agency's research and technology program supports this mission through the discovery, application, and dissemination of new knowledge, and the assessment, development, and promotion of new technologies. The program addresses the safety performance of drivers, carriers, and vehicles and also includes crosscutting projects relating to crash problem assessment and program support.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 10 shows FMCSA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

The FMCSA's RD&T request is down $2.3 million (19 percent) compared to FY 2006 and $2.6 million (21 percent) compared to FY 2007. Funding is down for all major RD&T activities, with the largest reduction in the area of commercial vehicle safety research (down $1.6 million, or 57 percent).

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 11 shows how FMCSA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support the Department's strategic goals. Eighty-four percent of the agency's RD&T funding will address improved safety. Other supported goals include reduced congestion (7 percent); organizational excellence (7 percent); and security, preparedness, and response (2 percent). Details for FMCSA RD&T programs are in Appendix B.

FMCSA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Produce Safer Drivers. Continued the North American Fatigue Management Program with U.S. and Canadian carriers; initiated a pilot study to assess the relative crash risk associated with various driver characteristics; began a study on the use of simulators in commercial driver training; developed requirements for an onboard monitoring and reporting suite; developed software to detect and deter third-party fraud during the commercial skills testing portion of the commercial driver's license (CDL) application process; and initiated the design of an Employer Notification Service that informs carriers of changes in a driver's CDL status.

Improve Safety of Commercial Motor Vehicles. Evaluated a lane-departure warning system; developed recommended practices for onboard safety technologies, including collision warning systems, adaptive cruise control, and stability systems; integrated data on carriers' historical driver safety management performance into the Inspection Selection System safety algorithm; and constructed a prototype and evaluated countermeasures to alert a driver if their vehicle is following too closely behind a commercial motor vehicle (CMV).

Information-Based Initiatives. Awarded $13.7 million in grants to 27 States and the District of Columbia for deployment of Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN); certified 7 additional States as completing core CVISN deployment (bringing the total up to 16 States); and published five new safety synthesis reports in cooperation with the Transportation Research Board (TRB) (CMV Driver Training Curricula and Delivery Methods and Their Effectiveness, CMV Carrier Safety Management Certification, Role of Safety Culture in Preventing CMV Crashes, Impact of
Behavior- Based Safety Techniques on CMV Drivers, and Health and Wellness Programs for CMV Drivers).

FY 2008 Highlights

Produce Safer Drivers. A total request of $4 million to identify driver risk factors in CMV crashes; improve understanding of crash precursors; develop and test a system for detecting drowsy drivers in day and night driving conditions; analyze behaviors, performance, and outcomes of high- versus low-risk drivers; explore development of a low-cost device to increase driver use of safety belts; enhance software to detect and deter fraud during the commercial skills testing portion of the CDL application process; assess issues with implementation of the Employer Notification Service; evaluate a statewide wireless inspection network; and identify and demonstrate new safety technologies and operational concepts.

Improve Safety of Commercial Motor Vehicles. $1.2 million to expand deployment and use of CMV safety systems and technologies; test an all-weather indirect viewing system; and evaluate the structural designs of hazardous materials cargo tanks.

Information-Based Initiatives. $1.2 million to broaden partnerships with TRB and continue work with stakeholders to implement expanded CVISN capabilities, improve CMV operations, and enhance security.

Federal Railroad Administration

The FRA's mission is to promulgate and enforce railroad safety regulations; administer financial assistance programs to railroads, including Amtrak; conduct research in support of improved railroad safety, operational efficiency, asset utilization, and capacity; foster the development of high-speed-rail passenger service; and consolidate government support of rail transportation activities. The FRA's RD&T covers railroad system issues (safety, security, environment); human factors; rolling stock and components; track and structures; track/train interaction; train control; grade crossings; hazardous materials; train occupant protection; and R&D facilities and equipment.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 12 shows FRA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

For FY 2008, FRA's total RD&T request is down $22 million (38 percent) compared to FY 2006 and $2.3 million (6 percent) from FY 2007. This reduction is primarily due to changes in three Railroad R&D programs: Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS); high-speed-rail corridor planning; and track stability assessment and monitoring and human factors research (at Marshall University and the University of Nebraska). Funding responsibility for NDGPS has shifted to RITA. Further funding for high-speed-rail corridor planning and Marshall University/University of Nebraska is not included in the FY 2007 or FY 2008 requests.

RD&T Earmarking

Figure 13 shows the level of earmarking for FRA's FY 2006 RD&T budget. Thirty percent of FRA's total RD&T budget was earmarked that year and approximately 32 percent of funding for the Railroad R&D program.

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 14 shows how FRA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT strategic goals. As shown, FRA will direct 92 percent of RD&T funding to railroad safety but will also support reduced congestion (4 percent); environmental stewardship (3 percent); and security, preparedness, and response (1 percent). Details for FRA RD&T programs are in Appendix B.

FRA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Railroad System Issues. Unveiled a "Rollover Rig" that simulates passenger train derailments and began development of a passenger egress model.

Human Factors. Completed validation of the Fatigue Avoidance Scheduling Tool and initiated a pilot test site for the Confidential Close Call Reporting System.

Rolling Stock and Components. Installed Onboard Condition Monitoring System equipment and other advanced components for the Advanced Concept Train demonstration.

Track and Structures. Developed a digital Visual Joint Bar Inspection system and completed a prototype system for detecting transverse head cracks in rails.

Track and Train Interaction. Developed a model that simulates multi-body railroad vehicle–track dynamics.

Train Control. In partnership with industry, completed several projects that will enhance the performance of Positive Train Control systems.

Grade Crossings. Awarded several grants for the closure and upgrading of crossings.

Hazardous Materials Transportation. Initiated testing to address tank car structural integrity in response to a recommendation of the National Transportation Safety Board.

Train Occupant Protection/Locomotive Crashworthiness. Successfully tested passenger cars retrofitted with Crash Energy Management crush zone designs.

FY 2008 Highlights

Railroad System Issues. $3.2 million to address railroad system safety, tank car protection, emergency equipment, energy efficiency, and environmental impacts.

Human Factors. $3.6 million for continued work on system design; worker and operator safety, performance, and health; and organizational aspects of safety.

Rolling Stock and Components. $2.9 million to continue efforts in support of the Advanced Concept Train.

Track and Structures. $3.9 million for further studies on rail and bridge structural integrity, rail defect detection, and track inspection and monitoring.

Track and Train Interaction. $3.2 million to continue research on vehicle–track dynamics and modeling.

Train Control. $5.1 million for continued advancement of Positive Train Control.

Grade Crossings. $2.2 million to make further safety improvements by addressing the infrastructure and human factors aspects of grade crossing accidents.

Hazardous Materials Transportation. $1.3 million for critical research on tank car structural integrity and security.

Train Occupant Protection and Locomotive Crashworthiness. $5.1 million to continue work in locomotive crashworthiness and the crashworthiness of passenger equipment

Federal Transit Administration

The FTA's mission is to ensure personal mobility and community vitality by supporting high-quality public transportation. The FTA accomplishes its mission through leadership, financial resources, and technical assistance. Research is focused on analyzing potential solutions to transit challenges, evaluating and testing best practices and technologies, and working with the transit industry to implement research solutions that are found to have significant return on investment. Conducted in partnership with the broader transit community, FTA research focuses on increasing transit ridership, improving safety and emergency preparedness, improving capital and operating efficiency, and protecting the environment and promoting energy independence.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 15 shows FTA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

As the figure shows, FTA's FY 2008 request is about $13.5 million lower than the FY 2006 actual level, a reduction of 18 percent. There is little change from FY 2007. The reduction in RD&T funding is due to a drop in FTA's National Research Program, primarily in efforts addressing the environment and energy independence (a $7.8 million reduction in FY 2008 compared to FY 2006, or 68 percent). Funding has been stable for FTA's other major programs: the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP), National Transit Institute, and UTCs.

RD&T Earmarking

Earmarking of FTA's FY 2006 RD&T budget is shown in Figure 16. Sixty-two percent of the entire RD&T budget was earmarked, including the National Research Program, which was 65 percent earmarked, and the UTCs and TCRP, both of which were 100 percent earmarked.

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 17 shows how FTA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT strategic goals. RD&T will support all goals, with an emphasis on reducing surface transportation congestion (76 percent). Thirteen percent will address safety; 6 percent environmental stewardship; 3 percent security, preparedness, and response; and 1 percent each global connectivity and organizational excellence. Additional details are in Appendix B.

FTA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Implementing National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Competitively selected three consortia to receive a share of program funding ($49 million): the Center for Transportation and the Environment in Atlanta, Georgia; the Northeast Advanced Vehicle Consortium in Boston, Massachusetts; and Westart/CALSTART in Pasadena, California.

Delivering Products, Innovations, and Techniques. In support of FTA's strategic research goals, completed studies on the state-of-the-art in advanced public transportation systems, the viability of the non-rail vehicle market, and the factors influencing light rail capital costs; developed crash energy management specifications for commuter rail cars; published a disaster response and recovery resource for transit agencies; and identified ITS applications for improving and coordinating human services transportation.

Providing Transit Research Leadership. Rolled out the new FTA Strategic Research Plan and completed the first Multi-Year Research Program Plan; issued research management guidelines; exceeded the goal of 90 percent of projects completed on time and within budget; received a Program Assessment Rating Tool score of "Effective," the highest possible.

FY 2008 Highlights

Increasing Transit Ridership. A request of $10.7 million to develop transportation solutions for aging and specialized populations and to reduce surface transportation congestion through improved transit services.

Improving Capital and Operating Efficiency. $13.4 million for RD&T to improve transit operational efficiency; control capital and operating costs; improve planning and management of capital investments; enhance workforce capacity; improve bus and rail operations, including Bus Rapid Transit; and develop voluntary design, safety, and performance standards.

Improving Safety and Emergency Preparedness. $9.4 million for research to improve fire safety on transit vehicles; prepare transit systems, emergency service agencies, and local, county, and regional governments for emergency situations; provide greater oversight in responding to emergency requests; and identify solutions to reduce the number of transit-related deaths and injuries.

Protecting the Environment and Promoting Energy Independence. $3.8 million for data collection and outreach to reduce barriers to deploying electric, hybrid, hydrogen, and fuel cell buses; research on technologies to reduce the energy consumption of rail systems; development of environmental streamlining guidance and best practices; and DOT's Center for Climate Change.

Providing Transit Research Leadership. $3.3 million to consolidate FTA's information technology initiatives, improve research management, make certain that transit research supports national goals, and ensure that grant programs are meeting their objectives.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

The NHTSA's mission is to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce economic costs due to road traffic crashes through education, research, safety standards, and enforcement activities. In the behavioral area, NHTSA focuses on the delivery of data-driven programs and countermeasures aimed at increasing use of occupant protection, reducing alcohol-related fatalities, reducing motorcycle fatalities, promoting effective speed management, prolonging older driver mobility as long as medically practicable, and maintaining the integrity of driver licensing processes. With respect to vehicle safety, NHTSA's research supports rulemaking, enforcement, and safety defect investigations and assesses the lifesaving benefits of emerging technologies as they enter the vehicle fleet.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 18 shows NHTSA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

For FY 2008 NHTSA's RD&T request is up $7.7 million (8 percent) compared to FY 2006 and $14.9 million (18 percent) from FY 2007. In both years the increase is due to additional funding for Highway Safety Research. (The FY 2008 request also includes an increase for Administrative Expenses.) NHTSA's Research and Analysis program, which conducts vehicle-safety-related research, is down $6.9 million (10 percent) in FY 2008 compared to FY 2006.

RD&T Earmarking

Figure 19 shows the level of earmarking for NHTSA's FY 2006 RD&T program. Approximately 6 percent of the agency's entire RD&T budget was earmarked, including Research and Analysis (7 percent) and Highway Safety Research (4 percent).

Support for DOT Goals

In keeping with NHTSA's mission, all FY 2008 RD&T funding will support the Department's safety strategic goal. (See Appendix B.)

NHTSA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Vehicle Safety Systems. Evaluated fleet performance in side-impact tests and advanced restraint systems for frontal and rollover crash protection; developed advanced concepts for crash-mitigation systems.

Biomechanics. Improved evaluation of brain injury potential from dummy measurements and continued development of an advanced frontal, fifth percentile female dummy.

Heavy Vehicles. Completed research to support reduced stopping distances for truck tractors, field operational tests for rear-end collision warning, electronically controlled braking systems, and a drowsy driver warning system.

Crash Avoidance and Human Vehicle Performance. Developed test protocols for advanced vehicle technologies; conducted National Advanced Driving Simulator studies to evaluate enhanced stability control and the safety impacts of driver distraction and alcohol impairment.

FY 2008 Highlights

Vehicle Safety Systems. $8.2 million for problem analyses for crash mitigation systems, adaptive restraints, and characterization of vehicle frontal crash energy compatibility.

Biomechanics. $11 million for trauma research programs, developing improved adult and child crash dummies, and expanded analytic capabilities for injury prediction and restraint design.

Heavy Vehicles. $2.1 million for research on driver assistance technologies, test development for tractor/semi-trailer Electronic Stability Control systems, and field tests of systems for electronic vision enhancement.

Crash Avoidance and Human Vehicle Performance. $7.8 million for evaluation of new crash avoidance technologies and performance tests.

Office of the Secretary

The OST's mission is to formulate national transportation policies that affect various modes and help ensure achievement of DOT goals. Research in OST supports the development, evaluation, and improvement of these policies and comprises work in economic and strategic analysis; safety, energy, and environment; freight and logistics; navigation and spectrum policy; aviation and international policy; and security. Key priorities include improving the economic efficiency of the transportation system; encouraging diffusion of best practices in transportation safety; improving the sustainability of transportation through market-based solutions and new technologies; developing financial strategies to accelerate economic investment in freight capacity; and encouraging the development of civilian positioning, navigation, and timing applications.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 20 shows OST RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

As the figure shows, requested funding for OST's Transportation Planning, Research, and Development (TPR&D) program is lower in FY 2008 than the actual level in FY 2006, with a difference of $5.7 million, or 39 percent.2 The request is up slightly from FY 2007, about $0.21 million, or 2 percent.

RD&T Earmarking

Earmarking of OST's FY 2006 TPR&D program is shown in Figure 21. A majority of the TPR&D budget that year was earmarked, approximately 62 percent.

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 22 shows how OST's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT strategic goals. In keeping with the office's broad responsibilities, RD&T will address the following: reduced congestion (37 percent); global connectivity (27 percent); safety (23 percent); environmental stewardship (11 percent); and security, preparedness, and response (2 percent). Additional details are in Appendix B.

OST RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Large-Scale Freight Projects. Developed an economic analysis framework for the evaluation of large-scale freight projects that lays out a five-step process that ensures that all policy-relevant impacts are assessed, including identifying the project's purpose and expected economic impacts, applying appropriate evaluation tools for measuring transportation and economic impacts, and applying decision support methods to ensure that all relevant impacts are considered in deciding whether to go forward.

Short-Sea Shipping Study. Studied the feasibility of short-sea shipping in the Pacific Northwest, including opportunities to reduce traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions through increased use of coastal marine transportation.

Expert Forum on Road Pricing and Travel Demand Modeling. Brought together experts in travel demand modeling to advance the state of the art in the context of congestion pricing; available travel demand models do a poor job of forecasting demand when highway usage is priced.

Research on Fuel Economy Impacts of Congestion and Congestion Pricing Schemes. Used national-level congestion estimates from the Texas Transportation Institute to explore the potential fuel savings for various forms of congestion pricing programs applied in the 85 largest U.S. urban areas.

Aromatics Pipelines. On behalf of PHMSA, prepared a report on the feasibility of constructing a common-carrier aromatics pipeline system along the U.S. Gulf Coast.

Market Approaches to Reducing Fuel Consumption. With other agencies, participated in an interagency study of various approaches to reducing light duty fuel consumption.

FY 2008 Highlights

Radionavigation and Spectrum Issues. $200K for policy analysis of Global Positioning System modernization and issues relating to protection of electromagnetic spectrum for critical transportation uses.

Freight Policy. $1 million for development of a National Freight Policy Framework and for applying that framework to analysis of freight issues in the Southern California ports complex.

Economic Analysis of Transportation Congestion. $950K for studies applying economic analysis to reducing traffic congestion in highways and aviation.
Aviation Data Modernization. $1 million for updating and enhancing the Nation's airline traffic and financial data collection system to improve aviation infrastructure planning and aviation policy analysis.

International Transportation Issues. $330K for policy analysis relating to international passenger and freight transportation, including international aviation, North American Free Trade Agreement trucking issues, and technical training.

Environmental Analysis. $325K for analysis of transportation environmental issues, including the effects of transportation on climate change and air quality and methods for managing transportation's environmental impacts.

Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

The PHMSA's mission is to promote the safe and secure transportation of hazardous materials by all modes. The agency has two major safety offices: the Office of Pipeline Safety, which promotes the safe, reliable, and environmentally sound operation of pipeline transportation; and the Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, which identifies, evaluates, and mitigates risks to the safe and secure transportation of hazardous materials. The RD&T program includes work in mission-critical areas, such as pipeline operations, control, and monitoring; pipeline damage prevention; improved pipeline materials; hazardous materials packaging and shipping; hazardous materials emergency response, hazard identification, risk assessment, and risk management; and hazardous materials transportation security.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 23 shows PHMSA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

For FY 2008, PHMSA's total RD&T request is $5.2 million less than the actual level for FY 2006 (a reduction of 44 percent) and $5.7 million less than FY 2007 (a drop of 46 percent). This reduction in RD&T funding is primarily due to a $5.1 million decrease in the agency's pipeline safety research program, representing a 54 percent drop for FY 2008 compared to FY 2006.

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 24 shows how PHMSA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT strategic goals. Primary emphasis will be on RD&T in support of improved safety (72 percent), with additional efforts supporting Departmental goals for environmental stewardship (21 percent) and reduced congestion (7 percent). Details for PHMSA RD&T programs are in Appendix B.

PHMSA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

Pipeline Safety Mechanical Damage Technical Workshop. Held a workshop on February 28–March 1 to identify technology for preventing, detecting, and characterizing pipeline mechanical damage as well as gaps in associated regulations and industry standards.

Pipeline Safety Advanced Welding and Joining Technical Workshop. On January 25–26 held a workshop to identify mutual government–industry goals in this area along with the regulatory, standards-related, and technology-development actions needed to achieve them.

Pipeline Safety RD&T Projects. Awarded 24 projects ($6.3 million) addressing improvements in damage prevention, direct assessment, inspection, leak detection, coatings, and pipeline design.

Pipeline Safety Small Business Innovation Research Projects. Awarded three Phase I projects ($.3 million) for innovative safety, reliability, and inspection technologies for pipeline system integrity management.

Pipeline Safety RD&T Project Peer Reviews. Held the first structured peer review for compliance with OMB's "Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review" of influential scientific information.

Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety. Supported development of the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook; Acute Exposure Guideline Levels; and nondestructive testing techniques and failure analysis for hazardous materials packaging.

Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program. Initiated a four-year pilot of this newly authorized program, which is being administered by the Transportation Research Board.

FY 2008 Highlights

Pipeline Safety. A total request of $4.3 million, including research on data mining and threat assessment; excavation damage prevention; direct assessment; defect detection and characterization; defect remediation, repair, and mitigation; and transportation of new fuels.

Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety. $2.2 million for new or follow-on research to enhance hazardous materials transportation safety and continue the pilot of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program.

Research and Innovative Technology Administration

The RITA's mission is to coordinate and review the Department's RD&T programs and to advance technologies that will reduce congestion and improve safety and system performance across the Nation's transportation network. The agency accomplishes the RD&T components of this mission by leading crossmodal research in areas such as hydrogen safety, ITS, remote sensing technologies, and positioning, navigation, and timing systems; planning, reviewing, and coordinating RD&T Department-wide; leading the Department's RD&T Planning Council and RD&T Planning Team; managing the UTC program and the ITS Joint Program Office; overseeing the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and the Transportation Safety Institute; and managing the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, which plays a key role in gathering and improving the quality of the aviation, freight, and passenger flow data so critical for Departmental decision-making and priority-setting.

Funding Trends FY 2006–2008

Figure 25 shows RITA RD&T funding for the 3-year period covered by this report. Funding details are in Appendix A.

The FY 2008 RD&T request for RITA is greater than for previous years—about $6 million more than FY 2006 and $4 million greater than FY 2007. As discussed in Section 2, this increase will provide $5 million in funding for operation and maintenance of the NDGPS and for system engineering analysis to determine the best means of meeting the transportation community's needs for positioning, navigation, and timing services.

Support for DOT Goals

Figure 26 shows how RITA's FY 2008 RD&T request will support DOT strategic goals. The majority of RITA's RD&T activities will support DOT goals for reduced congestion (59 percent) and organizational excellence (35 percent), with additional efforts supporting safety (3 percent) and environmental stewardship (3 percent). Details for RITA RD&T programs are in Appendix B.

RITA RD&T Accomplishments and Highlights

FY 2006 Accomplishments

RD&T Coordination. Furthered the implementation of DOT Order 1120.39A on the Research, Development, and Technology Planning Council, Team, and Process, including developing a five-year Transportation RD&T Strategic Plan; submitting the FY 2007 RD&T Annual Funding Report to Congress; identifying crossmodal RD&T priorities; reviewing operating administration RD&T budgets to assess support for Secretarial priorities; and leading annual program reviews to assess how modal priorities align with DOT goals.

Hydrogen Fuels Safety R&D. Completed a gap analysis for technical assessments and research related to hydrogen infrastructure safety and released a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of hydrogen vehicles and infrastructure.

FY 2008 Highlights

RD&T Coordination. $0.5 million for continued implementation of the Department's RD&T planning process, including updating the RD&T Strategic Plan, preparing the FY 2008 RD&T Annual Funding Report, reviewing modal RD&T budgets and programs, and supporting the activities of the DOT RD&T Planning Council and RD&T Planning Team.

Hydrogen Fuels Safety R&D. $0.5 million to develop guidelines for the design and operation of systems for hydrogen delivery and transport; participate in domestic and international partnerships to develop hydrogen safety codes and standards and to evaluate the operational use of hydrogen stations, vehicles, and infrastructure; refine a hydrogen safety training program for firefighters and first responders; and develop and validate nondestructive testing and other inspection technologies to facilitate the safe and reliable operation of the hydrogen transportation system.

Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System. $5M for a program, formerly within FRA, to operate and maintain the NDGPS in concert with the U.S. Coast Guard, Air Force, Army Corps of Engineers, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The program will also conduct system engineering activities in support of the development of a national architecture that will meet the transportation community's needs for high-performance positioning, navigation, and timing services.

1 This increase reflects the application of the obligation limitation and 1 percent rescission for FY 2006. The FHWA's FY 2008 request is similar to the FY 2006 appropriated level.

2 More than 60 percent of OST's FY 2006 RD&T budget consisted of earmarks. (See Figure 21.)