Constructing an Infrastructure Plan

Constructing an Infrastructure Plan

Recent Studies Related to a Hydrogen Infrastructure

Federal agency, industrial and academic stakeholders have and continue to develop frameworks and implementation plans for the transition from a transportation system based on fossil fuel to developing advanced technologies from domestic renewable energy resources that produce the greatest GHG reductions and other environmental benefits. The most pertinent include:

The National Academies' National Research Council - Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies - A Focus on Hydrogen, 2008

This study estimates the resources needed to bring hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to the point of competitive self-sustainability in the marketplace. It also projects the impact on oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions as HFCVs become a large fraction of the light-duty vehicle fleet.

The National Academies' National Research Council - The National Academies Summit on America's Energy Future: Summary of a Meeting, 2008

This summit brought together many energy experts to discuss how U.S. energy needs can be met without irreparably damaging Earth's environment or compromising U.S. economic and national security. It is part of the ongoing project "America's Energy Future: Technology Opportunities, Risks, and Tradeoffs," providing authoritative estimates and analysis of the current and future supply of and demand for energy; new and existing technologies to meet those demands; their associated impacts; and their projected costs.

The National Academies' National Research Council - Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Systems: A Framework for Meeting 21st Century Imperatives, 2009

This report discusses the essential components of a new paradigm for the renewal of critical infrastructure systems, and outlines a framework to ensure that ongoing activities, knowledge, and technologies can be aligned and leveraged to help meet multiple national objectives.

The National Academies' National Research Council - Review of DOE's Nuclear Energy Research and Development Program, 2008

The FY 2006 Budget funded a National Academy of Sciences review of DOE's Nuclear Energy research programs to recommend priorities for those programs given the likelihood of constrained budget levels in the future. The programs to be evaluated were Nuclear Power 2010, the Generation IV reactor development program, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)/Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and the Idaho National Laboratory facilities program. The committee's evaluation of each is summarized in this report, along with its assessment of program priorities and oversight and its relevant recommendations.

National Hydrogen Association - The Energy Evolution: an analysis of alternative vehicles and fuels to 2100, April 2009

The Energy Evolution compares more than 15 of the most promising fuel and vehicle alternatives over a 100-year period, in scenarios where a mix of vehicles is used initially with one fuel and vehicle alternative becomes dominant in the vehicle mix over time. The scenarios evaluate the performance and viability of each alternative in terms of greenhouse gases, oil imports, urban air pollution and societal costs.

Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transport ers and retailers, consumers, and governments. In response to the EPACT of 2005 requirement and recommendations by the National Academies of Science, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) has supported a series of analyses to evaluate alternative scenarios for deployment of millions of hydrogen fueled vehicles and supporting infrastructure. This report shares the results of those analyses.

Department of Energy Hydrogen Program - Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan, Planned program activities for 2005-2015, updated April 2009

This Plan details the goals, objectives, technical targets, tasks and schedule for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program's contribution to the DOE Hydrogen Program - the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Similar detailed plans exist for the other DOE offices and can be found at The DOE Hydrogen Posture Plan is the integrated plan for all four offices and can be found at:

Department of Energy and Department of Transportation - Hydrogen Posture Plan: An Integrated Research, Development and Demonstration Plan (2006)"

The Hydrogen Posture Plan outlines the DOE role in hydrogen energy research and development, in accordance with the former Administration's National Hydrogen Energy Vision and Roadmap. It also lays the foundation for a coordinated response, including collaboration with the DOT, to the former President's plan for accelerating implementation of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell technologies. (

Department of Transportation - U.S. Department of Transportation Roadmap for the Safety of Hydrogen Vehicles and Infrastructure to Support a Hydrogen Economy, October 2005

The DOT Hydrogen Roadmap is helping to guide DOT Hydrogen Safety Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RDD&D) programs. It outlines the roles and activities of each participating operating administration and their parallel efforts within the DOT. The Roadmap also serves as an outreach document for communication, coordination, and collaboration with other Federal agencies, industry, the public, and Congress.

Department of Transportation - Hydrogen Infrastructure Safety Technical Assessment and Research Results Gap Analysis, April 2006

To enable successful introduction of hydrogen into the marketplace, the development of appropriate technical codes, standards, and regulations providing high levels of safety and environmental protection should proceed in parallel with the substantial pace of new technology development. This report identifies gaps in the current hydrogen technology base, and recommends solutions to U.S. DOT for closing these gaps.

Department of Transportation - A Policy Framework for Addressing Risk during Transition to the Hydrogen Economy, (draft), August 2006

This framework provides an analytic basis for PHMSA's Office of Hazardous Materials Safety (OHM) in support of a consistent and effective regulatory response to emerging options for hydrogen fuel delivery and dispensing facilities. The analytic basis provided is intended to serve as a core framework for risk assessment of hydrogen economy transition measures.

Department of Transportation - Alternative Fuels Roadmap (draft), January 2009

This report outlines the need to replace petroleum as the source of transportation fuel in the US, the different types of alternative fuels, and what DOT, in conjunction with other organizations, has done and will need to do in the area of alternative fuels.

California Fuel Cell Partnership - Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Station Deployment Plan: A Strategy for Meeting the Challenge Ahead Action Plan, February, 2009

This action plan details a strategy for deploying hydrogen fueling stations and fuel cell vehicles in California. It specifies the steps needed to meet the fuel needs of 4,300 passenger vehicles and 20 fuel cell buses by 2014, and prepares for even more growth though 2017. The plan calls for 46 retail hydrogen fueling stations in six key California communities at a cost of about $180 million over four years; $60 million from industry and $120 million from government.

National Hydrogen Association - The Future of Hydrogen: An Alternative Transportation Analysis for the 21st Century, Webinar, October 23, 2008

This webinar features the analysis and models of 5 to 10 difference alternative fuel and vehicle combinations, recently heard in briefings on Capitol Hill and conferences across the globe. Each combination is analyzed on a 'well-to-wheels' basis and across a wide range of variables, making it one of the most thorough comparisons of next-generation transportation technologies.

General Motors Research & Development Center - Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Assessment, December 2007

This report demonstrates that a hydrogen fueling infrastructure that could support volume deployment of fuel cell-electric vehicles can be commercially viable and that, in the long term, customers will not have to pay more per mile for hydrogen than they do for gasoline today. Supporting data is provided by key infrastructure stakeholders, including Shell, GE, and DOE.

University of California, Davis - Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: A Case Study for Southern California, January 2008

Southern California has been proposed as a likely site for developing a hydrogen refueling infrastructure. This paper applies dynamic programming to identify optimized strategies for supplying hydrogen over time in Southern California.

Where is a National Plan?

There is no single national plan for building a hydrogen infrastructure. There are national plans orchestrating each of the numerous activities that constitute a hydrogen infrastructure. Just as authority and responsibility for all of these elements is disbursed across the public and private sectors, coordination efforts are focused on the process owners and stakeholders who make the largest difference in achieving disparate goals. As reflected by the studies cited above, there are national, and sometimes international, efforts addressing each of the key aspects such as safety codes and standards, Federal research and development, requirements for station siting, providing outreach and tools for State and local decisionmakers. The work that is being done today is providing the context that will make a national framework possible.

However, if the nation is to achieve the goal of a greener, more secure economy, there is a need for a long term focus on alternative fuels research, development and deployment including hydrogen. This is not solely a Federal responsibility. State, local and private sector stakeholders will be key to leveraging and realizing a common commitment for this fundamental change in American mobility. Accomplishing this transition will be no less impressive than building a transcontinental railroad or the Interstate highway system.

There is a strong foundation of work to start this journey to widespread use of hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Key publications include:

In addition, DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratories has assessed how best to create a hydrogen infrastructure and identifies implementation strategies including market supports lasting until 2025 to make the technology more attractive to consumers

The lab has conducted scenario analyses to predict market behaviors

The NRC work on transitioning to hydrogen and the nation's energy future also bring a good grounding for future planning.