Table 3.1. Additional Federal and Stakeholder Progress to Date

Table 3.1. Additional Federal and Stakeholder Progress to Date

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  Additional Federal & Stakeholder Progress to Date
Fuel Cell Vehicle Performance and Cost DOE estimates the cost of automotive fuel cell systems has been reduced by 73%, from $275/kilowatt (kW) in 2002 to $73/kW in 2008. These projections (assuming 500,000 units per year) have been validated by an independent assessment, which concluded that $60 - $80/kW is a "valid estimation" of high-volume manufacturing cost, using 2008 technology. Costs will need to be reduced to about $30/kW to be competitive with gasoline internal combustion engines.

Automotive fuel cell durability has also improved, with vehicles in real-world demonstrations showing about 2000-hour durability. Advances in key components (e.g., fuel cell membranes, catalysts, etc.) have enabled laboratory demonstrations of more than 7,300 hours of durability, in single-cell testing. Complete fuel cell "stacks" still need to meet the target of 5000-hour durability under real world conditions, which corresponds to roughly 150,000 miles of driving. General Motors has achieved 3,500-hour durability in dynamometer tests and greater than 5,500-hour durability in the lab.

140 vehicles fuel cell vehicles have been demonstrated through the National Learning Demonstration, traveling over 1.9 million miles. Key results include: fuel cell efficiency of 53 58%; durability of nearly 2,000 hours (nearly 60,000 miles); and driving range of 196 254 miles.

Onboard hydrogen storage tanks for vehicles have demonstrated capacities of 2.8-3.8% hydrogen by weight (17-18 grams/liter) at 350 bar and 2.5-4.4% hydrogen by weight (18 to 25 grams/liter) at 700 bar, compared to the 2015 target of 5.5 wt% and the ultimate target of 7.5 wt%. Some manufacturers have reported more than 300-mile ranges with high-pressure tanks, in limited vehicle platforms. Promising materials for low pressure storage have been identified with 50% storage capacity improvement since 2004-advanced materials storage technologies have the potential to enable a 300-mile driving range across all vehicle types.
Vehicle Supply Through its Technology Validation efforts, DOE has worked with original equipment manufacturers to demonstrate 140 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in real-world conditions. Additional recent industry demonstrations bring the total number of to more than 200 vehicles demonstrated in the United States. California's ZEV mandate offers a further opportunity to increase deployments of fuel cell vehicles.
Fuel Supply According to DOE, the cost of producing hydrogen from distributed reforming of natural gas (where hydrogen is produced at the refueling site) has been reduced to $3.00/gge (projected for high-volume production and widespread deployment), reaching the cost target of $2.00 $3.00/gge.

R&D efforts have reduced the cost of other distributed hydrogen production technologies, including electrolysis and reforming of renewable bio-derived liquids (current cost estimates are $4.50 5.00/gge) and longer-term renewable pathways (current cost estimates are $5.00 9.00/gge for large-scale production at centralized facilities, which includes $3.00/gge for delivery). However, the cost of hydrogen from renewable and other pathways must still be reduced to $2:00- $3:00/gge.

Hydrogen delivery costs have also been reduced: projected delivery costs using tube-trailers have been reduced by about 30% since 2005 to ~$4.00/gge; and projected delivery costs using pipelines have been reduced more than 10% to less than $3.50/gge, compared to the target of <$1/gge. Commercially available fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) pipes show no degradation or leakage from high-pressure hydrogen.
Refueling Refueling time of 5 minutes or less for 5 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen at 350 bar dispensing pressure has been achieved, meeting DOE's near-term target. More than 90,000 kg of hydrogen have been produced and dispensed, as reported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Public Perception & Education DOE and stakeholders have been conducting a broad range of activities to educate key audiences, including safety & code officials, State and local government officials, end-users and early adopters, students, and local communities where demonstration projects will take place. Progress to date includes: launch of a training program for first-responders (a hands-on course and an online course that has had more than 9,000 users); launch of an Internet course for code officials; workshops and seminars held to help decision-makers identify opportunities for fuel cell deployments (this involved partnerships with State and State /regional hydrogen and fuel cell initiatives); launch of the "Increase Your H2IQ Public Information Program" (includes radio spots, podcasts, print materials, and a MySpace page); and middle school and high school curricula and teacher professional-development programs, which have reached more than 7,000 teachers since 2004
Insurance & Liability DOE and its stakeholders have held workshops to develop approaches to address insurability concerns for suppliers and users. Insurance representatives have met with advisory panels and government representatives to help identify insurance related issues.
Standards, Codes & Permitting DOE, DOT and stakeholders have developed a national template identifying the key codes necessary for hydrogen and fuel cells and the code-development organizations responsible for them. A comprehensive document of hydrogen codes ("Hydrogen Technologies Code"-NFPA2) has been developed to compile all existing hydrogen-related codes and add new critical codes as they are developed (document is currently under review-due for release in 2010). To date 22 hydrogen codes and standards have been published-28 are under preparation/review, and an international draft standard for fuel quality is expected to be published in the fall of 2009.

A number of stakeholders are facilitating the development of codes and standards by supporting research and validation necessary to provide the data needed for technically sound codes and standards.

DOE has developed Web-based resources and performed extensive education and outreach to facilitate the permitting process. 15 permitting workshops have been conducted since 2007, training 250 code officials.
Safety & Emergency Response Basic training for first-responders has been initiated. DOE developed an online course, "Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders," which has registered more than 9,000 users since its launch in 2007. An advanced course for first-responders has also been launched, incorporating hands-on training.
Sustained Federal Commitment The Federal Government has been funding R&D programs for developing relevant technologies, fuels and fuel supplies. Federal policies are being developed to support and facilitate the development of business cases to support private sector investment. Tax credits and other financing tools can support vehicle conversion and infrastructure development
Sustained Marketplace Commitment In early 2008 General Motors launched Project Driveway, which has resulted in the deployment of 100 fuel cell vehicles for a consumer test market in the United States. A similar Project Driveway program was launched in Europe in November 2008.

In July 2008, Honda began leasing fuel cell vehicles to a limited number of retail consumers in Southern California, with plans to deploy 200 vehicles by the summer of 2011.

Toyota, Honda, GM, Hyundai, and Daimler have all announced plans to commercialize fuel cell vehicles by 2015. Proterra has announced plans to commercialize a fuel cell bus by 2012.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research & Innovative Technology Administration and U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program.